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Proper limb growth and patterning requires signals from the zone of polarizing activity in the posterior mesoderm and from the overlying apical ectodermal ridge (AER). Sonic hedgehog and Fgf-4, respectively, have recently been identified as candidates for these signals. We have dissected the roles of these secreted proteins in early limb development by(More)
During vertebrate limb development, the ectoderm directs the dorsoventral patterning of the underlying mesoderm. To define the molecular events involved in this process, we have analyzed the function of WNT7a, a secreted factor expressed in the dorsal ectoderm, and LMX1, a LIM homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the dorsal mesenchyme. Ectopic(More)
In the anterior pituitary gland, there are five phenotypically distinct cell types, including cells that produce either prolactin (lactotrophs) or growth hormone (somatotrophs). Multiple, related cis-active elements that exhibit synergistic interactions appear to be the critical determinants of the transcriptional activation of the rat prolactin and growth(More)
The formation of many complex structures is controlled by a special class of transcription factors encoded by selector genes. It is shown that SCALLOPED, the DNA binding component of the selector protein complex for the Drosophila wing field, binds to and directly regulates the cis-regulatory elements of many individual target genes within the genetic(More)
The idea that productivity regulates species diversity is deeply ingrained in the field of ecology. Yet, over the past few decades, an increasing number of experiments have shown that species diversity controls, rather than simply responds to, biomass production. These contrasting perspectives have led to a seeming paradox: Is diversity the cause or the(More)
Benthic primary producers in marine ecosystems may significantly alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in their surrounding environment. To examine these interactions, we studied dissolved organic matter release by dominant benthic taxa and subsequent microbial remineralization in the lagoonal reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Rates of(More)
Here we identify duplicated genes in five mammalian genomes and classify these duplicates based on the mechanisms by which they were generated. Retrotransposition accounts for at least half of all predicted duplicate genes in these genomes, with tandem and interspersed DNA-mediated duplicates comprising the other half. Estimation of the evolutionary rates(More)
Nutrient enrichment of high-elevation freshwater ecosystems by atmospheric deposition is increasing worldwide, and bacteria are a key conduit for the metabolism of organic matter in these oligotrophic environments. We conducted two distinct in situ microcosm experiments in a high-elevation lake (Emerald Lake, Sierra Nevada, California, USA) to evaluate(More)
Familial cancer syndromes have helped to define the role of tumor suppressor genes in the development of cancer. The dominantly inherited Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is of particular interest because of the diversity of childhood and adult tumors that occur in affected individuals. The rarity and high mortality of LFS precluded formal linkage analysis. The(More)
Hox proteins have been proposed to act at multiple levels within regulatory hierarchies and to directly control the expression of a plethora of target genes. However, for any specific Hox protein or tissue, very few direct in vivo-regulated target genes have been identified. Here, we have identified target genes of the Hox protein Ultrabithorax (UBX), which(More)