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Following are the Executive Summary, Summary of Recommendations , and Implementation and Audit sections. The references for the entire guideline are available in the online edition of the journal. The entire guideline and the full citation apparatus have been previously published by HICPAC and are available at This guideline updates and expands the original(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying gaps in care for people with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is important to clinicians, public health officials, and federal agencies. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature to provide estimates of the proportion of chronic HCV-infected persons in the United States (U.S.) completing each(More)
AIM This paper is a report of a review to assess clinical studies comparing the effectiveness of different means of maintaining central venous catheter patency. BACKGROUND Flushing with heparin is a routine part of central venous catheter maintenance, but it presents risks, including heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Other techniques used to prevent(More)
OBJECTIVES Untreated hypertension (HTN) is a major public health problem. Screening for untreated HTN in the emergency department (ED) may lead to appropriate treatment of more patients. The authors investigated the accuracy of identifying HTN in the ED, the proportion of ED patients with untreated HTN, patient characteristics predicting untreated HTN, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the proportion of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in US hospitals that are "reasonably preventable," along with their related mortality and costs. METHODS To estimate preventability of catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), surgical site infections (SSIs),(More)
BACKGROUND Radial artery access for coronary angiography and interventions has been promoted for reducing hemostasis time and vascular complications compared with femoral access, yet it can take longer to perform and is not always successful, leading to concerns about its cost. We report a cost-benefit analysis of radial catheterization based on results(More)
Oxytocin receptor (OTR) regulation has been extensively studied in uterine myometrium and endometrium. However, studies in the cervix are limited. The present studies utilized in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to localize OTR mRNA and protein distribution in cervices of nonpregnant ovariectomized (OVX) rats and examined the effect of combined(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning regarding cognitive impairment, the relationship between statins and cognition remains unknown. PURPOSE To examine the effect of statins on cognition. DATA SOURCES PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception through October 2012; FDA databases from January 1986 through March(More)
OBJECT Autograft and allograft, the standard approaches for lumbar fusion procedures, have important disadvantages. Bone graft substitutes such as recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7) have emerged as viable alternatives. The authors conducted a systematic review to compare the efficacy and safety of osteoinductive bone graft(More)
Despite their clinical efficacy, concerns about calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity make alternative regimens that reduce CNI exposure attractive for renal transplant recipients. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed four CNI immunosuppression strategies (minimization, conversion, withdrawal, and avoidance) designed to reduce CNI(More)