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Selectivity of the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of heterocycles bearing multiple identical halogens is mainly determined by the relative ease of oxidative addition. This is related to both the energy to distort the carbon halogen bond to the transition-state geometry (related to the CX bond-dissociation energy) and to the interaction between(More)
Fluorescent neuroanatomic techniques, such as immunofluorescence and retrograde and anterograde tracing studies, derive great utility from their specificity. However, the specificity can be a drawback as well, in that it may be difficult to assess labeled neurons or neural processes in their cytoarchitectonic context. We report the characteristics of a(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO) are said to destroy norepinephrine (NE). We studied the role of NE decomposition by NO donors and ONOO as they affect the contractile activity of NE in rat denuded thoracic aorta. First, we determined the relaxing effect of NO donors (SNAP, PROLI/NO, Sodium nitrite, SIN-1) and ONOO after precontraction by NE (1(More)
A copper-promoted coupling of vinyl pinacol boronate esters and alcohols for the synthesis of enol ethers is reported. The reaction occurs in 50-99% yield and is compatible with a variety of functional groups. Cupric acetate is the copper source, and triethylamine buffer is used to prevent protodeboration; the reaction occurs at room temperature. In(More)
As a complement to Pd(0)-catalyzed cyclizations, seven Pd(II)-catalyzed cyclization strategies are reported. α,ω-Diynes are selectively hydroborated to bis(boronate esters), which cyclize under Pd(II)-catalysis producing a diverse array of small, medium, and macrocyclic polyenes with controlled E,E, Z,Z, or E,Z stereochemistry. Various functional groups are(More)
The total syntheses of the potent protein kinase C inhibitors calphostins A, B, C, and D as well as a variety of structural analogues are reported. An aminobenzannulation reaction of an enantiopure chromium Fischer carbene complex is utilized to prepare a pentasubstituted naphthylamine. After optimization of side-chain substituents, conversion of the(More)
Both benzylic cations and anions are strongly stabilized by chromium tricarbonyl complexation, while benzylic radicals are largely unaffected. Density functional theory calculations were performed on primary, secondary, and tertiary benzylic species to explore the effect of substitution on the stabilizing ability of the chromium tricarbonyl moiety.(More)
Chromium tricarbonyl complexed aryl aldeyhydes and ketones underwent Sm(II)-promoted radical lactone formation in the presence of alpha,beta-unsaturated esters to produce diastereomerically pure lactones in good yields. The completely diastereoselective lactone formation involves capture of the benzylic ketyl radical by the ester anti to the chromium(More)