Learn More
Erythromelagia is a condition characterized by attacks of burning pain and inflammation in the extremeties. An epidemic form of this syndrome occurs in secondary students in rural China and a virus referred to as erythromelalgia-associated poxvirus (ERPV) was reported to have been recovered from throat swabs in 1987. Studies performed at the time suggested(More)
BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) superinfection has been documented in high-risk individuals; however, the rate of superinfection among HIV-infected individuals within a general population remains unknown. METHODS A novel next-generation ultra-deep sequencing technique was utilized to determine the rate of HIV superinfection in a heterosexual(More)
Chromothripsis is a catastrophic cellular event recently described in cancer in which chromosomes undergo massive deletion and rearrangement. Here, we report a case in which chromothripsis spontaneously cured a patient with WHIM syndrome, an autosomal dominant combined immunodeficiency disease caused by gain-of-function mutation of the chemokine receptor(More)
A diverse suite of effector immune responses provide protection against various pathogens. However, the array of effector responses must be immunologically regulated to limit pathogen- and immune-associated damage. CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) calibrate immune responses; however, how Treg cells adapt to control different effector responses is(More)
BACKGROUND A genetic bottleneck is known to exist for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the point of sexual transmission. However, the nature of this bottleneck and its effect on viral diversity over time is unclear. METHODS Interhost and intrahost HIV diversity was analyzed in a stable population in Rakai, Uganda, from 1994 to 2002. HIV-1 envelope(More)
BACKGROUND The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial demonstrated that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from HIV-infected adults (index participants) to their HIV-uninfected sexual partners. We analyzed HIV from 38 index-partner pairs and 80 unrelated index participants(More)
BACKGROUND Giardia lamblia trophozoites colonize the intestines of susceptible mammals and cause diarrhea, which can be prolonged despite an intestinal immune response. The variable expression of the variant-specific surface protein (VSP) genes may contribute to this prolonged infection. Only one is expressed at a time, and switching expression from one(More)
Giardia lamblia (syn G. intestinalis, G. duodenalis) is the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite of humans worldwide and is a frequent cause of endemic and epidemic diarrhea. G. lamblia is divided into eight genotypes (A-H) which infect a wide range of mammals and humans, but human infections are caused by Genotypes A and B. To unambiguously determine(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of serious infections and also a human commensal. The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus led to a dramatic increase in skin and soft tissue infections worldwide. This epidemic has been driven by a limited number of clones, such as USA300 in the United States. To better understand the(More)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are a common neurological manifestation of HIV infection. A previous study suggested that HIV dementia may be more common among patients with subtype D virus than among those with subtype A virus among HIV+ individuals with advanced immunosuppression. We conducted a study to evaluate the frequency of HIV(More)