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How do we know which grammatical error correction (GEC) system is best? A number of metrics have been proposed over the years, each motivated by weaknesses of previous metrics; however, the metrics themselves have not been compared to an empirical gold standard grounded in human judgments. We conducted the first human evaluation of GEC system outputs, and(More)
Previous work has shown that high quality phrasal paraphrases can be extracted from bilingual parallel corpora. However, it is not clear whether bitexts are an appropriate resource for extracting more sophisticated sen-tential paraphrases, which are more obviously learnable from monolingual parallel corpora. We extend bilingual paraphrase extraction to(More)
Text simplification is the process of changing vocabulary and grammatical structure to create a more accessible version of the text while maintaining the underlying information and content. Automated tools for text simplification are a practical way to make large corpora of text accessible to a wider audience lacking high levels of fluency in the corpus(More)
The Automated Evaluation of Scientific Writing , or AESW, is the task of identifying sentences in need of correction to ensure their ap-propriateness in a scientific prose. The data set comes from a professional editing company, VTeX, with two aligned versions of the same text – before and after editing – and covers a variety of textual infelicities that(More)
This work surveys existing evaluation methodologies for the task of sentence compression, identifies their shortcomings, and proposes alternatives. In particular, we examine the problems of evaluating paraphrastic compression and comparing the output of different models. We demonstrate that compression rate is a strong predictor of compression quality and(More)
We present a substitution-only approach to sentence compression which " tightens " a sentence by reducing its character length. Replacing phrases with shorter paraphrases yields paraphrastic compressions as short as 60% of the original length. In support of this task, we introduce a novel technique for re-ranking paraphrases extracted from bilingual(More)
Simple Wikipedia has dominated simplification research in the past 5 years. In this opinion paper, we argue that focusing on Wikipedia limits simplification research. We back up our arguments with corpus analysis and by highlighting statements that other researchers have made in the simplification literature. We introduce a new simplification dataset that(More)
Most recent sentence simplification systems use basic machine translation models to learn lexical and syntactic paraphrases from a manually simplified parallel corpus. These methods are limited by the quality and quantity of manually simplified corpora, which are expensive to build. In this paper, we conduct an in-depth adaptation of statistical machine(More)
We have created layers of annotation on the English Gigaword v.5 corpus to render it useful as a standardized corpus for knowledge extraction and distributional semantics. Most existing large-scale work is based on inconsistent corpora which often have needed to be re-annotated by research teams independently, each time introducing biases that manifest as(More)
In this work, we explore applications of automatic essay scoring (AES) to a corpus of essays written by college freshmen and discuss the challenges we faced. While most AES systems evaluate highly constrained writing, we developed a system that handles open-ended, long-form writing. We present a novel corpus for this task, containing more than 3,000 essays(More)