Costas P. Grigoropoulos

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We report gas and water flow measurements through microfabricated membranes in which aligned carbon nanotubes with diameters of less than 2 nanometers serve as pores. The measured gas flow exceeds predictions of the Knudsen diffusion model by more than an order of magnitude. The measured water flow exceeds values calculated from continuum hydrodynamics(More)
There is much interest in developing synthetic analogues of biological membrane channels with high efficiency and exquisite selectivity for transporting ions and molecules. Bottom-up and top-down methods can produce nanopores of a size comparable to that of endogenous protein channels, but replicating their affinity and transport properties remains(More)
When solid materials and devices scale down in size, heat transfer from the active region to the gas environment becomes increasingly significant. We show that the heat transfer coefficient across the solid-gas interface behaves very differently when the size of the solid is reduced to the nanoscale, such as that of a single nanowire. Unlike for macroscopic(More)
Flexible electronics opened a new class of future electronics. The foldable, light and durable nature of flexible electronics allows vast flexibility in applications such as display, energy devices and mobile electronics. Even though conventional electronics fabrication methods are well developed for rigid substrates, direct application or slight(More)
Tissue morphogenesis and organ formation are the consequences of biochemical and biophysical cues that lead to cellular spatial patterning in development. To model such events in vitro, we use PEG-patterned substrates to geometrically confine human pluripotent stem cell colonies and spatially present mechanical stress. Modulation of the WNT/β-catenin(More)
Although adhesive interactions between cells and nanostructured interfaces have been studied extensively, there is a paucity of data on how nanostructured interfaces repel cells by directing cell migration and cell-colony organization. Here, by using multiphoton ablation lithography to pattern surfaces with nanoscale craters of various aspect ratios and(More)
This work presents an experimental procedure for measuring high temperature spectral optical functions of materials. The complex refractive index is determined over a spectral range of 1.13-4.96 eV at high temperatures by eUipsometry in a reduced pressure, inert gas environment. On the basis of the measured complex refractive index, relevant optical(More)
—A KrF excimer laser projection micromachining tool has been designed and implemented aiming to accomplish one-step etching with micron resolution for applications such as chip module packaging and polyimide technology in semiconductor manufacturing. Two polyimide (Probimide 7020) thin films spun on the silicon wafers are annealed at 100 C and 400 C,(More)
Contractility of cells in wound site is important to understand pathological wound healing and develop therapeutic strategies. In particular, contractile force generated by cells is a basic element for designing artificial three-dimensional cell culture scaffolds. Direct assessment of deformation of three-dimensional structured materials has been used to(More)
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