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Mice that are homozygous for the autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia (cho) mutation die at birth with abnormalities in cartilage of limbs, ribs, mandible, and trachea. Limb bones of newborn cho/cho mice are wider at the metaphyses than normal bones and only about half the normal length. By linkage analysis, the cho gene and the gene encoding the alpha 1(More)
The atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) have markedly enhanced the treatment of schizophrenias but their use has been hindered by the major weight gain elicited by some AAPDs. We report that orexigenic AAPDs potently and selectively activate hypothalamic AMP-kinase, an action abolished in mice with deletion of histamine H1 receptors. These findings may(More)
Female B6AF1 mice thymectomized on day 3 (d3tx) develop autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD) and dacryoadenitis. It has been hypothesized that d3tx breaks tolerance by depleting late ontogeny regulatory T cells (Treg). We now report that Treg greatly expand over effector T cells in d3tx mice and adoptively suppress autoimmune disease in d3tx recipients. In the(More)
OBJECTIVE The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the primary genetic contributor to multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), but multiple additional interacting loci are required for genetic susceptibility. The identity of most of these non-MHC genes is unknown. In this report, we identify genes within evolutionarily(More)
Although several transcription factors have been shown to be critical for the induction and maintenance of IL-17 expression by CD4 Th cells, less is known about the role of nontranscriptional mechanisms. Here we show that the p38 MAPK signaling pathway is essential for in vitro and in vivo IL-17 production by regulating IL-17 synthesis in CD4 T cells(More)
Bphs controls Bordetella pertussis toxin (PTX)-induced vasoactive amine sensitization elicited by histamine (VAASH) and has an established role in autoimmunity. We report that congenic mapping links Bphs to the histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1/H1R) and that H1R differs at three amino acid residues in VAASH-susceptible and -resistant mice. Hrh1-/- mice are(More)
Structural polymorphisms (L263P, M313V, and S331P) in the third intracellular loop of the murine histamine receptor H(1) (H(1)R) are candidates for Bphs, a shared autoimmune disease locus in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and experimental allergic orchitis. The P-V-P haplotype is associated with increased disease susceptibility (H(1)R(S)) whereas(More)
Interleukin (IL) 6 is a proinflammtory cytokine produced by antigen-presenting cells and nonhematopoietic cells in response to external stimuli. It was initially identified as a B cell growth factor and inducer of plasma cell differentiation in vitro and plays an important role in antibody production and class switching in vivo. However, it is not clear(More)
In genetically susceptible strains of mice, such as A/J and (C57BL/6J x A/J)F1 hybrids, neonatal thymectomy-induced autoimmune ovarian dysgenesis (AOD) is characterized by the development of antiovarian autoantibodies, oophoritis, and atrophy. Temporally, atrophy may be observed during and after the regression of inflammatory infiltrates from the ovary.(More)
Pertussis toxin (PTX) is an ancillary adjuvant used to elicit experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal autoimmune model of multiple sclerosis. One mechanism whereby PTX potentiates EAE is to increase blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. To elucidate further the mechanism of action of PTX on the BBB, we investigated the genomic and(More)