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Internal physiological states influence behavioral decisions. We have investigated the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms at the first olfactory synapse for starvation modulation of food-search behavior in Drosophila. We found that a local signal by short neuropeptide F (sNPF) and a global metabolic cue by insulin are integrated at specific(More)
Early sensory processing can play a critical role in sensing environmental cues. We have investigated the physiological and behavioral function of gain control at the first synapse of olfactory processing in Drosophila. Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) express the GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R), and its expression expands the dynamic range of ORN synaptic(More)
Neurotransmitters are essential for interneuronal signalling, and the specification of appropriate transmitters in differentiating neurons has been related to intrinsic neuronal identity and to extrinsic signalling proteins. Here we show that altering the distinct patterns of Ca2+ spike activity spontaneously generated by different classes of embryonic(More)
Neurotransmitter signaling in the mature nervous system is well understood, but the functions of transmitters in the immature nervous system are less clear. Although transmitters released during embryogenesis regulate neuronal proliferation and migration, little is known about their role in regulating early neuronal differentiation. Here, we show that GABA(More)
Investigating how information propagates between layers in the olfactory system is an important step toward understanding the olfactory code. Each glomerular output projection neuron (PN) receives two sources of input: the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of the same glomerulus and interneurons that innervate many glomeruli. We therefore asked how these(More)
Sensory systems must be able to extract features of environmental cues within the context of the different physiological states of the organism and often temper their activity in a state-dependent manner via the process of neuromodulation. We examined the effects of the neuromodulator serotonin on a well-characterized sensory circuit, the antennal lobe of(More)
Innate behaviours are observed in naive animals without prior learning or experience, suggesting that the neural circuits that mediate these behaviours are genetically determined and stereotyped. The neural circuits that convey olfactory information from the sense organ to the cortical and subcortical olfactory centres have been anatomically defined, but(More)
The role of classical neurotransmitters in the transfer and processing of olfactory information is well established in many organisms. Neuropeptide action, however, is largely unexplored in any peripheral olfactory system. A subpopulation of local interneurons (LNs) in the Drosophila antannal lobe is peptidergic, expressing Drosophila tachykinins (DTKs). We(More)
Appropriate specification of neurotransmitters is a key feature of neuronal network assembly. There is much evidence that genetic programs are responsible for this aspect of cell fate and neuronal differentiation. Are there additional ways in which these processes are shaped? Recent findings demonstrate that altering patterned Ca(2+) spike activity that is(More)
Calcium-signaling plays a central role in specification of the chemical transmitters neurons express, adjusting the numbers of cells that express excitatory and inhibitory transmitters as if to achieve homeostatic regulation of excitability. Here we review the extent to which this activity-dependent regulation is observed for a range of different(More)