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The programming language Emerald was designed and developed to demonstrate that the object-based style of programming can be incorporated both elegantly and eeciently in a distributed programming environment. At the same time, Emerald is a modern programming language providing excellent features for abstractions and polymorphism. Primarily a language for(More)
Sequence analysis of the dnrR2 locus from the cluster of daunorubicin biosynthesis genes in Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 29050 has revealed the presence of two divergently transcribed open reading frames, dnrN and dnrO. The dnrN gene appears to encode a response regulator protein on the basis of conservation of the deduced amino acid sequence relative to(More)
Polyketides, the ubiquitous products of secondary metabolism in microorganisms, are made by a process resembling fatty acid biosynthesis that allows the suppression of reduction or dehydration reactions at specific biosynthetic steps, giving rise to a wide range of often medically useful products. The lovastatin biosynthesis cluster contains two type I(More)
The acyl carrier protein (ACP) of the tetracenomycin C polyketide synthase, encoded by the tcmM gene, has been expressed in both Streptomyces glaucescens and Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Expression of the tcmM gene in E. coli results mainly in the TcmM apo-ACP, whereas expression in S. glaucescens yields solely the holo-ACP. The purified(More)
Streptomyces glaucescens, a Gram-positive soil bacterium, produces the polyketide antibiotic tetracenomycin (Tcm) C. To study possible biochemical connections between the biosynthesis of bacterial fatty acids and polyketides, the abundant acyl carrier protein (ACP) detected throughout the growth of the tetracenomycin (Tcm) C-producing S. glaucescens was(More)
A genetic block was introduced in the first condensation step of the polyketide biosynthetic pathway that leads to the formation of 6-deoxyerythronolide B (6-dEB), the macrocyclic precursor of erythromycin. Exogenous addition of designed synthetic molecules to small-scale cultures of this null mutant resulted in highly selective multimilligram production of(More)
Aromatic polyketides are assembled by a type 11 (iterative) polyketide synthase (PKS) in bacteria. Understanding the enzymology of such enzymes should provide the information needed for the synthesis of novel polyketides through the genetic engineering of PKSs. Using a previously described cell-free system [B.S. & C.R.H. (1993) Science 262, 1535-1540], we(More)
Microorganisms and plants manufacture a large collection of medically and commercially useful natural products called polyketides by a process that resembles fatty acid biosynthesis. Genetically engineered microorganisms with modified polyketide synthase (PKS) genes can produce new metabolites that may have new or improved pharmacological activity. A(More)
The Streptomyces peucetius dpsY and dnrX genes govern early and late steps in the biosynthesis of the clinically valuable antitumor drugs daunorubicin (DNR) and doxorubicin (DXR). Although their deduced products resemble those of genes thought to be involved in antibiotic production in several other bacteria, this information could not be used to identify(More)
Doxorubicin-overproducing strains of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 29050 can be obtained through manipulation of the genes in the region of the doxorubicin (DXR) gene cluster that contains dpsH, the dpsG polyketide synthase gene, the putative dnrU ketoreductase gene, dnrV, and the doxA cytochrome P-450 gene. These five genes were characterized by sequence(More)