Cortland K. Griswold

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The [PSI(+)] prion may enhance evolvability by revealing previously cryptic genetic variation, but it is unclear whether such evolvability properties could be favored by natural selection. Sex inhibits the evolution of other putative evolvability mechanisms, such as mutator alleles. This paper explores whether sex also prevents natural selection from(More)
The [PSI(+)] prion causes widespread readthrough translation and is rare in natural populations of Saccharomyces, despite the fact that sex is expected to cause it to spread. Using the recently estimated rate of Saccharomyces outcrossing, we calculate the strength of selection necessary to maintain [PSI(+)] at levels low enough to be compatible with data.(More)
The relationship between pleiotropy and the rate of evolution of a phenotypic character (evolvability) in a population is explored using computer simulations. I present results that suggest the rate of evolution of a phenotypic character may not decline when that character is pleiotropically associated to an increasing number of other characters, provided(More)
This paper uses computer simulations to determine how gene flow between populations affects (1) the genetic architecture of a local adaptation and (2) properties of alleles segregating in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping populations. Results suggest that the average magnitude of an allele that causes a phenotypic difference between populations(More)
Many traits of evolutionary interest, when placed in their developmental, physiological, or environmental contexts, are function-valued. For instance, gene expression during development is typically a function of the age of an organism and physiological processes are often a function of environment. In comparative and experimental studies, a fundamental(More)
Given the high costs of conducting a drug-response trial, researchers are now aiming to use retrospective analyses to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify underlying genetic contributions to drug-response variation. To prevent confounding results from a GWAS to investigate drug response, it is necessary to account for concomitant(More)
The genetics of adaptive shape shift in stickleback: pleiotropy and effect size. Evolution 62:76-85. Test: a new fast, simple and powerful method to distinguish between linked or pleiotropic quantitative trait loci in linkage disequilibria analysis. The genetics of adaptation: The roles of pleiotropy, stabilizing selection and drift in shaping the(More)
We evaluate the effect of epistasis on genetically-based multivariate trait variation in haploid non-recombining populations. In a univariate setting, past work has shown that epistasis reduces genetic variance (additive plus epistatic) in a population experiencing stabilizing selection. Here we show that in a multivariate setting, epistasis also reduces(More)
In this paper we present a model that maps epistatic effects onto a genealogical tree for a haploid population. Prior work has demonstrated that genealogical structure causes the genotypic values of individuals to covary. Our results indicate that epistasis can reduce genotypic covariance that is caused by genealogical structure. Genotypic effects (both(More)
Calcium-signals occur in a wide variety of tissue types - from skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle to pancreatic and brain tissues. Ca(2+) signals regulate diverse processes including muscle contraction, hormone secretion, neural communication and gene expression. Together these different tissues and processes form the basis of a multivariate trait. Calcium(More)