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We analyzed sequences from a 275-bp hypervariable region in the 5' end of the mitochondrial DNA control region in 190 common chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) from 19 populations in Europe and North Africa, including new samples from Greece and Morocco. Coalescent techniques were applied to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) and(More)
The [PSI(+)] prion causes widespread readthrough translation and is rare in natural populations of Saccharomyces, despite the fact that sex is expected to cause it to spread. Using the recently estimated rate of Saccharomyces outcrossing, we calculate the strength of selection necessary to maintain [PSI(+)] at levels low enough to be compatible with data.(More)
This paper uses computer simulations to determine how gene flow between populations affects (1) the genetic architecture of a local adaptation and (2) properties of alleles segregating in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping populations. Results suggest that the average magnitude of an allele that causes a phenotypic difference between populations(More)
Pleiotropy allows for the deterministic fixation of bidirectional mutations: mutations with effects both in the direction of selection and opposite to selection for the same character. Mutations with deleterious effects on some characters can fix because of beneficial effects on other characters. This study analytically quantifies the expected frequency of(More)
The [PSI(+)] prion may enhance evolvability by revealing previously cryptic genetic variation, but it is unclear whether such evolvability properties could be favored by natural selection. Sex inhibits the evolution of other putative evolvability mechanisms, such as mutator alleles. This paper explores whether sex also prevents natural selection from(More)
Most animal populations have distinct breeding and non-breeding periods, yet the implications of seasonality on population dynamics are not well understood. Here, we introduce an experimental model system to study the population dynamics of two important consequences of seasonality: sequential density dependence and carry-over effects (COEs). Using a(More)
The G matrix measures the components of phenotypic variation that are genetically heritable. The structure of G, that is, its principal components and their associated variances, determines, in part, the direction and speed of multivariate trait evolution. In this article we present a framework and results that give the structure of G under the assumption(More)
The relationship between pleiotropy and the rate of evolution of a phenotypic character (evolvability) in a population is explored using computer simulations. I present results that suggest the rate of evolution of a phenotypic character may not decline when that character is pleiotropically associated to an increasing number of other characters, provided(More)
In seasonal populations, vital rates are not only determined by the direct effects of density at the beginning of each season, but also by density at the beginning of past seasons. Such delayed density dependence can arise via non-lethal effects on individuals that carry over to influence per capita rates. In this study, we examine (i) whether parental(More)
Many traits of evolutionary interest, when placed in their developmental, physiological, or environmental contexts, are function-valued. For instance, gene expression during development is typically a function of the age of an organism and physiological processes are often a function of environment. In comparative and experimental studies, a fundamental(More)