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The HLA-A locus represents a single copy gene that displays abundant allelic polymorphism in the human population, whereas, in contrast, a nonhuman primate species such as the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) possesses multiple HLA-A-like (Mamu-A) genes, which parade varying degrees of polymorphism. The number and combination of transcribed Mamu-A genes(More)
The highly polymorphic gene products of the classical MHC class I genes in humans (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) play a critical role in the immune defense against intracellular infections. Because non-human primates are important models for AIDS vaccine research, rhesus monkeys from a thoroughly pedigreed and serotyped colony were subjected to full-length cDNA(More)
In the absence of treatment, most HIV-1-infected humans develop AIDS. However, a minority are long-term nonprogressors, and resistance is associated with the presence of particular HLA-B*27/B*57 molecules. In contrast, most HIV-1-infected chimpanzees do not contract AIDS. In comparison with humans, chimpanzees experienced an ancient selective sweep(More)
The major histocompatibility complex class I gene repertoire was investigated in a large panel of rhesus macaques of Chinese origin. As observed in Indian animals, subjects of Chinese derivation display Mamu-B gene copy number variation, and the sum of expressed genes varies among haplotypes. In addition, these genes display differential transcription(More)
Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) mainly originating from India were analysed for their major histocompatibility complex class I-related (MIC) gene repertoire. Thus far, three distinct genes, designated MIC1, MIC2 and MIC3, have been identified in the rhesus macaque. In addition, an MICD pseudogene has been described mapping apart from the other loci in a(More)
MHC haplotypes of humans and the African great ape species have one copy of the MHC-A, -B, and -C genes. In contrast, MHC haplotypes of orangutans, the Asian great ape species, exhibit variation in the number of gene copies. An in-depth analysis of the MHC class I gene repertoire in the two orangutan species, Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus, is presented in(More)
To improve the results gained by serotyping rhesus macaque major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, molecular typing techniques have been established for class I and II genes. Like the rhesus macaque Mamu-DRB loci, the Mamu-A and -B are not only polymorphic but also polygenic. As a consequence, sequence-based typing of these genes is time-consuming.(More)
In the human population, five major HLA-DRB haplotypes have been identified, whereas the situation in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) is radically different. At least 30 Mamu-DRB region configurations, displaying polymorphism with regard to number and combination of DRB loci present per haplotype, have been characterized. Until now, Mamu-DRB region genes(More)
The Mamu-A, Mamu-B, and Mamu-DRB genes of the rhesus macaque show several levels of complexity such as allelic heterogeneity (polymorphism), copy number variation, differential segregation of genes/alleles present on a haplotype (diversity) and transcription level differences. A combination of techniques was implemented to screen a large panel of pedigreed(More)
Chimpanzees experienced a reduction of the allelic repertoire at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I A and B loci, which may have been caused by a retrovirus belonging to the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) family. Extended MHC haplotypes were defined in a pedigreed chimpanzee colony. Comparison of genetic variation at microsatellite(More)