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The formalin test was used to measure the analgesia induced by restraint in male and female rats. Animals were restrained for 30 min or left undisturbed in their cage and then (1) killed immediately to collect blood for hormonal determinations; or (2) subcutaneously injected with formalin in the hind paw (or sham-injected), introduced to an open field for(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an official taekwondo competition (three 1-min rounds with a 1-min recovery in-between) on heart rate (HR), salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), and salivary-free cortisol (sC) in children. Parental consent was obtained for 12 young (10.4 ± 0.2 years) male taekwondo athletes. Saliva sample were collected 15 min(More)
Two groups of elite male swimmers were studied using a similar protocol during the winter training seasons of two consecutive years. In the first season (September 1997-January 1998), eight male swimmers (age 19-25 years) of the Italian National Team participated, after 12 weeks of increased training volume, in a preparatory national competition (PWC) and(More)
This study aimed to verify whether coordination improves as a result of a preseason soccer training. During 5 experimental sessions (days 1, 6, 11, 15, and 19), 16 semiprofessional male soccer players (22.0 ± 3.6 years) were administered 3 specific soccer tests (speed dribbling, shooting a dead ball, and shooting from a pass) and an interlimb coordination(More)
This study aimed to analyze the technical and tactical aspects of young athletes during official taekwondo competitions. Fifty-nine youth taekwondo athletes (43 boys and 16 girls; age range: 10-12 years; weight category range: <24 to >59 kg) with at least 2 years of taekwondo training consisting of three 90-minute training sessions for 3 d·wk⁻¹ participated(More)
The involvement of the hippocampal choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in the response to tonic pain was investigated in rats injected with formalin, either 50 microliters 10% or 50 microliters 0.1%. Hippocampal ChAT activity was found to be reduced both 30 and 60 min after injection of the higher concentration of formalin but only 30 min after the(More)
A parallel study of the modification in the opioid and immunological systems induced by acute restraint (RT) was carried out in male and female rats 24 hr after the treatment. beta-Endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-ELI) was measured in two brain areas (ventral hypothalamus [HYP] and periaqueductal gray matter [PAG]) and in the pituitary (anterior and(More)
This study aimed at verifying whether chronic participation in soccer training has a beneficial effect (p < 0.05) on the improvement and the maintenance of interlimb coordination performance across the lifespan and whether coordination is moderated by strength and power performances. Forty young (12 +/- 1 yr), 42 adult (26 +/-5 yr), and 32 older (59 +/- 11(More)
A series of experiments in male rabbits examined the influence of tonic immobility (animal hypnosis) on the opioid and pituitary-adrenal hormones. The aims of the experiments were to follow the temporal modifications in hormone parameters and to discriminate the effects of immobility from those of the manipulative procedure to induce the reaction. Results(More)
The central action of steroid hormones of the regulation of reproductive behaviour has been recognized in Amphibia, as in, other Vertebrates. Central and peripheral endocrine aspects of reproductive behaviour were studied in the toad Bufo bufo during the breeding aspects of reproductive behaviour were studied in the toad Bufo bufo during the breeding (DHT)(More)