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Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family probably play a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. The present study used a systematic approach to analyze how different human leukocyte populations express specific transcripts for the first five characterized TLR family members. TLR1 was expressed in all leukocytes(More)
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) levels are consistently elevated in patients with severe pneumonia and sepsis and highly predictive for an unfavorable outcome. In addition, pneumonia is associated with strongly elevated PAI-1 levels in the pulmonary compartment. However, whether PAI-1 causally affects antibacterial host defense in vivo(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is involved in extracellular matrix degradation and leukocyte migration. To determine the role of MMP-9 in the innate immune response to peritonitis, MMP-9 gene-deficient (MMP-9(-/-)) and normal wild-type mice were i.p. infected with Escherichia coli. MMP-9 mRNA and pro-MMP-9 protein levels increased rapidly upon induction(More)
BACKGROUND Ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) causes apoptosis, inflammation, and tissue damage leading to organ malfunction. Ischemic preconditioning can protect against such injury. This study investigates the contribution of the acute phase proteins alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) to the protective effect of ischemic(More)
Proinflammatory effects induced by the serine protease factor Xa were investigated in HUVEC. Exposure of cells to factor Xa (5-80 nM) concentration dependently stimulated the production of IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and the expression of E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, which was accompanied by polymorphonuclear leukocyte(More)
Pulmonary coagulopathy and hyperinflammation may contribute to an adverse outcome in sepsis. The present study determines the effects of natural inhibitors of coagulation on bronchoalveolar haemostasis and inflammation in a rat model of endotoxaemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to treatment with normal saline, recombinant human activated(More)
INTRODUCTION Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is expressed by multiple cell types present in the lungs and can be activated by various proteases generated during acute inflammation. The cellular effect of PAR-1 activation partially depends on the specific(More)
INTRODUCTION Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. The factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation results in resistance of activated FV to inactivation by activated protein C and thereby in a prothrombotic phenotype. Human heterozygous FVL carriers have been reported to be relatively protected against sepsis-related(More)
BACKGROUND Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia and a major cause of sepsis. Recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rh-TFPI) attenuates sepsis-induced coagulation and has been evaluated in clinical trials involving patients with sepsis and community-acquired pneumonia. OBJECTIVE To(More)
BACKGROUND Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common bacterial pathogen causing human respiratory tract infections under permissive conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Inhalation of beta2-receptor agonists is a widely used treatment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to(More)