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OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of a broad range of external influences to the gut microbiotic composition in early infancy. METHODS Fecal samples from 1032 infants at 1 month of age, who were recruited from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands, were subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(More)
We have determined the complete genome sequence of the Maastricht strain of rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV). The RCMV genome has a length of 229,896 bp and is arranged as a single unique sequence flanked by 504-bp terminal direct repeats. RCMV was found to have counterparts of all but one of the open reading frames (ORFs) that are conserved between murine CMV(More)
The pathogenesis of encephalitis associated with the respiratory pathogen Myco-plasma pneumoniae is not well understood. A direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS) and an immune-mediated process have been discussed [1]. Recent observations suggest that intrathecally detectable antibodies against the bacterium , which can serve to establish the(More)
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL33 gene is conserved among all beta-herpesviruses and encodes a protein that shows sequence similarity with chemokine receptors belonging to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we show that HCMV UL33 is predominantly transcribed as a spliced mRNA of which the 5' terminus is localized 55 bp upstream of the(More)
HIV integrase (IN) cleaves two nucleotides off the 3' end of viral DNA and integrates viral DNA into target DNA. Previously, three functional domains in the HIV IN protein have been identified: (i) the central catalytic domain, (ii) the C-terminal DNA binding domain, and (iii) the N-terminal region, which is also necessary for activity. We have now(More)
Rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) open reading frame R44 is the homolog of human cytomegalovirus gene UL44, which encodes the DNA polymerase accessory protein. Here, we show that R44 is transcribed as a 3.6-kb mRNA within the early and late phases of infection in vitro. In order to find potential monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) directed against the R44-encoded(More)
The DNA integration step in the replication cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been recognized as an important target in antiviral strategies. There are two main reasons for this. First, integration of HIV DNA into the human genome is required for replication of this retrovirus. Second, since the integration reaction does not have an(More)
The first choice antibiotics for treatment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections are macrolides. Several recent studies, however, have indicated that the prevalence of macrolide (ML)-resistance, which is determined by mutations in the bacterial 23S rRNA, is increasing among M. pneumoniae isolates. Consequently, it is imperative that ML-resistance in M.(More)
The gene encoding major adhesin protein P1 of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, MPN141, contains two DNA sequence stretches, designated RepMP2/3 and RepMP4, which display variation among strains. This variation allows strains to be differentiated into two major P1 genotypes (1 and 2) and several variants. Interestingly, multiple versions of the RepMP2/3 and RepMP4(More)
Herpesviruses are known to influence expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules on the surface of infected cells using a variety of mechanisms. Downregulation of MHC class I expression prohibits detection and elimination of infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. To investigate the effect of rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV)(More)