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The petunia loci anthocyanin1 (an1), an2, an4, and an11 are required for the transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in floral organs. The an2 and an11 loci were recently cloned and shown to encode a MYB-domain transcriptional activator and a cytosolic WD40 protein, respectively. Here, we report the isolation of an1 by transposon tagging. an1(More)
A main determinant of inflorescence architecture is the site where floral meristems are initiated. We show that in wild-type Petunia bifurcation of the inflorescence meristem yields two meristems of approximately equal size. One terminates into a floral meristem and the other maintains its inflorescence identity. By random transposon mutagenesis we have(More)
The regulation of pH in cellular compartments is crucial for intracellular trafficking of vesicles and proteins and the transport of small molecules, including hormones. In endomembrane compartments, pH is regulated by vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), which, in plants, act together with H(+)-pyrophosphatases (PPase), whereas distinct P-type H(+)-ATPases in(More)
The acidification of endomembrane compartments is essential for enzyme activities, sorting, trafficking, and trans-membrane transport of various compounds. Vacuoles are mildly acidic in most plant cells because of the action of V-ATPase and/or pyrophosphatase proton pumps but are hyperacidified in specific cells by mechanisms that remained unclear. Here, we(More)
We have analysed the expression of the 8-10 members of the gene family encoding the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS) from Petunia hybrida. During normal plant development only two members of the gene family (CHS-A and CHS-J) are expressed. Their expression is restricted to floral tissues mainly. About 90% of the total CHS mRNA pool is(More)
In this paper we report the isolation of cDNA clones encoding the flavonoid-biosynthetic enzyme chalcone flavanone isomerase (CHI) from Petunia hybrida. A nearly full size cDNA clone, isolated from a corolla-specific expression library, was characterized by sequence analysis. Using this CHI cDNA and the previously cloned flavonoid-specific chalcone synthase(More)
The Petunia hybrida genes ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1) and AN2 encode transcription factors with a basic-helix-loop-helix (BHLH) and a MYB domain, respectively, that are required for anthocyanin synthesis and acidification of the vacuole in petal cells. Mutation of PH4 results in a bluer flower color, increased pH of petal extracts, and, in certain genetic(More)
Establishment of loss-of-function phenotypes is often a key step in determining the biological function of a gene. We describe a procedure to obtain mutant petunia plants in which a specific gene with known sequence is inactivated by the transposable element dTph1. Leaves are collected from batches of 1000 plants with highly active dTph1 elements, pooled(More)
ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1) of petunia is a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family that is required for the synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. Here, we show that AN1 controls additional aspects of cell differentiation: the acidification of vacuoles in petal cells, and the size and morphology of cells in the seed coat epidermis. We(More)
In order to scan the 5' flanking region of the chalcone synthase (chs A) gene for regulatory sequences involved in directing flower-specific and UV-inducible expression, a chimaeric gene was constructed containing the chs A promoter of Petunia hybrida (V30), the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) structural sequence as a reporter gene and the chs A(More)