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Transcranially applied weak direct currents are capable of modulating motor cortical excitability in the human. Anodal stimulation enhances excitability, cathodal stimulation diminishes it. Cortical excitability changes accompany motor learning. Here we show that weak direct currents are capable of improving implicit motor learning in the human. During(More)
The search for a special neuropsychological profile of frontal lobe epilepsy subjects (FLE) has so far led to inconclusive results. In this paper we compared the preoperative neuropsychological performance of FLE and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) subjects. We further investigated whether frontal lobe lesions of epileptogenic cause produce the same type of(More)
Theoretical models of persecutory delusions have emphasized the impact of reasoning biases and negative emotion at the early stages of symptom formation. However, the causal mechanisms remain unclear. This study tests the hypothesis that state anxiety will increase paranoid ideation and that this increase will be moderated by the level of individual(More)
BACKGROUND Transluminal interventions via so-called natural orifices are gaining interest because they allow operative treatment without any skin incision. We previously described a transoral access for (para-)thyroid resection in pigs. To proceed with the first clinical trials, we evaluated the safety of the new technique. METHODS Transoral(More)
Endothermy has facilitated mammalian species radiation, but the sequence of events leading to sustained thermogenesis is debated in multiple evolutionary models. Here we study the Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a phylogenetically ancient, 'protoendothermic' eutherian mammal, in which constantly high body temperatures are reported only during(More)
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of compulsive buying and its association with sociodemographic characteristics and depressive symptoms in a nationally representative sample of the German population using the validated German version of the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS; Faber and O'Guinn, 1992) in order to have a direct comparison with(More)
Golden spiny mice (Acomys russatus) living in the Judean desert are exposed to extended periods of food and water shortage. We investigated their thermal and metabolic response to three weeks of 50 % food reduction at ambient temperatures of 23, 27, 32 and 35 °C by long term records of metabolic rate and body temperature in the laboratory. At all ambient(More)
The authors sought to clarify whether lesions in different parts of the cerebellum result in differential cognitive and affective impairment. Six subjects with cerebellar lesions due to posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) infarction, five subjects with lesions in the SCA vascular territory, and 11 matched controls were administered a battery of(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors sought to determine the long-term outcome of subjects with severe and refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy during the 1970s. Special emphasis was given to the analysis of specific lesion sites. METHOD Sixteen OCD subjects who had undergone ventromedial frontal leukotomy were(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that schizophrenia is associated with various morphological and functional abnormalities of the frontal cortex. So far research has concentrated on the dorsolateral and orbitofrontal cortex. Behavioral evidence suggests however that regions responsible for higher motor control are compromised in schizophrenia as well. The(More)