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Antibacterials play a key role in the treatment of bone infections and appropriate surgical prophylaxis. The rate and extent of penetration of antimicrobials into bone has been assessed and shown to be important for successful treatment in numerous studies. However, no recent review or critical evaluation of the analytical techniques is available. This(More)
BACKGROUND Polymyxin B is a last-line therapy for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. There is a dearth of pharmacokinetic data to guide dosing in critically ill patients. METHODS Twenty-four critically ill patients were enrolled and blood/urine samples were collected over a dosing interval at steady state. Polymyxin B concentrations were measured(More)
Meropenem is a broad-spectrum carbapenem antibacterial agent. In order to optimize levels in plasma relative to the MICs, the ideal dose level and dosage regimen need to be determined. The pharmacokinetics of meropenem were studied in two groups, each comprising eight healthy volunteers who received the following doses: 500 mg as an intravenous infusion(More)
Diabetes mellitus is a major health risk in many countries, and the incidence rates are increasing. Diverse therapeutic agents are applied to treat this condition. Since 1960, numerous mathematical models have been developed to describe the glucose-insulin system, analyse data from diagnostic tests and quantify drug effects. This review summarizes the(More)
'Old' colistin and polymyxin B are increasingly used as last-line therapy against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. For intravenous administration, colistin is dosed as its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (sodium), while polymyxin B is used as its sulfate (active(More)
This study examines the pharmacokinetics of oral doses of lithium carbonate immediate-release capsules after administration of 600 or 900 mg in children and adolescents with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, bipolar I disorder. Lithium plasma concentrations were followed over 48 to 72 hours in 39 subjects (20 male and 19(More)
BACKGROUND Lithium is a well-established treatment for bipolar I disorder in adults. However, there is a paucity of information on its pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in children and adolescents. We aimed to develop the first lithium dosage regimens based on population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics for paediatric patients. METHODS Lithium(More)
AIMS To explore the extent, time course, site(s), mechanism and possible clinical relevance of the pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction between piperacillin and flucloxacillin. METHODS A single-dose, randomized, six-way crossover study in 10 healthy volunteers where all subjects received all of the following as 5-min intravenous infusions: (i) 1.5 g(More)
Influences of genetic and nutritional factors on body weight, fat mass, and leptin production and effects of leptin were assessed in normal [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)] and diabetic [Goto-Kakizaki (GK)] rats by mechanism-based modeling. The study included 60 WKY and 60 GK rats; half received high-fat diet (HF), and the others received normal rat chow (N). Body(More)
Administering polymyxin antibiotics in a traditional fashion may be ineffective against Gram-negative ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens. Here, we explored increasing the dose intensity of polymyxin B against two strains of(More)