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Proteasomes are the main proteases responsible for cytosolic protein degradation and the production of major histocompatibility complex class I ligands. Incorporation of the interferon gamma--inducible subunits low molecular weight protein (LMP)-2, LMP-7, and multicatalytic endopeptidase complex--like (MECL)-1 leads to the formation of immunoproteasomes(More)
Proteasomes degrade endogenous proteins. Two subunits, LMP-2 and LMP-7, are encoded in a region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that is critical for class I-restricted antigen presentation. Mice with a targeted deletion of the gene encoding LMP-7 have reduced levels of MHC class I cell-surface expression and present the endogenous antigen HY(More)
The gene encoding the murine calcitonin receptor (mCTR) was isolated, and the exon/intron structure was determined. Analysis of transcripts revealed novel cDNA sequences, new alternative exon splicing in the 5'-untranslated region, and three putative promoters (P1, P2, and P3). The longest transcription unit is greater than 67 kilobase pairs, and the(More)
Spontaneous emergence of phenotypic heterogeneity in cultures of genetically identical cells is a frequently observed phenomenon that provides a simple in vitro experimental system to model the problems of in vivo differentiation. In the present study, we have investigated whether stochastic variation of gene expression levels could contribute to phenotypic(More)
Mice deficient for the pre-TCR alpha (pT alpha) chain cannot form a pre-T cell receptor (TCR) and exhibit a severe defect in early T cell development, characterized by lack of "beta selection" and impaired generation of double-positive (DP) thymocytes. Here, we demonstrate that intraperitoneal injection of CD3epsilon-specific antibodies into pT alpha-/- x(More)
The mouse pre-T-cell receptor alpha (pT alpha) chain is a 33,000 M(r) glycoprotein expressed on the surface of immature thymocytes as a disulfide-linked heterodimer with the T-cell receptor beta (TCR beta) chain, and in association with proteins of the CD3 complex. The cDNA for pT alpha, isolated previously, encodes a type I transmembrane protein that is a(More)
Expression of a TCRgamma transgene in RAG-1-/- mice resulted in the development of a limited number of CD4+CD8+ (DP) thymocytes. In vivo treatments with anti-TCRgamma antibody enhanced the number of DP thymocytes, demonstrating that TCRgamma chains were expressed on the cell surface in the absence of delta, alpha, or beta chains. Mutations in pTalpha or(More)
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