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Sleep is an essential process conserved from flies to humans. The importance of sleep is underscored by its tight homeostatic control. Through a forward genetic screen, we identified a gene, sleepless, required for sleep in Drosophila. The sleepless gene encodes a brain-enriched, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. Loss of SLEEPLESS protein(More)
The sorting of specific proteins into clathrin-coated pits and the mechanics of membrane invagination are determined by assembly of the clathrin lattice. Recent structures of a six-fold barrel clathrin coat at 21 A resolution by electron cryomicroscopy and of the clathrin terminal domain and linker at 2.6 A by X-ray crystallography together show how domains(More)
The Drosophila PAR domain protein 1 (Pdp1) gene encodes a transcription factor with multiple functions. One isoform, PDP1epsilon, was proposed to be an essential activator of the core clock gene, Clock (Clk). However, a central clock function for PDP1epsilon was recently disputed, and genetic analysis has been difficult due to developmental lethality of(More)
We present a map at 21 A resolution of clathrin assembled into cages with the endocytic adaptor complex, AP-2. The map was obtained by cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction. It reveals details of the packing of entire clathrin molecules as they interact to form a cage with two nested polyhedral layers. The proximal domains of each(More)
Electron cryomicroscopy of the clathrin coat and X-ray crystallography of parts of the clathrin heavy chain combine to give a detailed picture of the clathrin molecule, assembled as a cage. Recently determined domain structures of other components of the endocytic machinery, particularly the mu2 subunit and the alpha-appendage domain of the AP2 adaptor(More)
Sleep is a whole-organism phenomenon accompanied by global changes in neural activity. We previously identified SLEEPLESS (SSS) as a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein required for sleep in Drosophila. Here we found that SSS is critical for regulating the sleep-modulating potassium channel Shaker. SSS and Shaker shared similar expression(More)
Several low-grade persistent viral infections induce and sustain very large numbers of virus-specific effector T cells. This was first described as a response to cytomegalovirus (CMV), a herpesvirus that establishes a life-long persistent/latent infection, and sustains the largest known effector T cell populations in healthy people. These T cells remain(More)
The Dna J homologue, auxilin, acts as a co-chaperone for Hsc70 in the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles during endocytosis. Biochemical studies have aided understanding of the uncoating mechanism but until now there was no structural information on how auxilin interacts with the clathrin cage. Here we have determined the three-dimensional structure of a(More)
Homeodomain proteins regulate multiple developmental pathways by altering gene expression temporally and in a tissue-specific fashion. The Proline Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) is a transcription factor and an essential regulator of embryonic development and haematopoiesis. Recent discoveries have implicated self-association as an important feature of(More)
Protein self-organization is essential for the establishment and maintenance of nuclear architecture and for the regulation of gene expression. We have shown previously that the Proline-Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) self-assembles to form oligomeric complexes that bind to arrays of PRH binding sites with high affinity and specificity. We have also(More)