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Charybdotoxin (CTX), a small, basic protein from scorpion venom, strongly inhibits the conduction of K ions through high-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channels. The interaction of CTX with Ca2+-activated K+ channels from rat skeletal muscle plasma membranes was studied by inserting single channels into uncharged planar phospholipid bilayers. CTX blocks K+(More)
Sleep is an essential process conserved from flies to humans. The importance of sleep is underscored by its tight homeostatic control. Through a forward genetic screen, we identified a gene, sleepless, required for sleep in Drosophila. The sleepless gene encodes a brain-enriched, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. Loss of SLEEPLESS protein(More)
Amyloid-beta, the major constituent of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease, is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by proteolysis. Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) containing forms of APP (APP751/770) interact with a multifunctional endocytic receptor, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), which modulates its proteolytic(More)
The effects of the excitatory amino acid glutamate, the microtubule destabilizing agent colchicine, and beta 25-35-amyloid peptide on the phosphorylation state of tau were studied in rat cortical neurons in primary culture. Using immunocytochemistry and Western-blot analysis, we demonstrated that a proportion of tau in these cultures is normally highly(More)
The Drosophila PAR domain protein 1 (Pdp1) gene encodes a transcription factor with multiple functions. One isoform, PDP1epsilon, was proposed to be an essential activator of the core clock gene, Clock (Clk). However, a central clock function for PDP1epsilon was recently disputed, and genetic analysis has been difficult due to developmental lethality of(More)
We have identified three DNase I-hypersensitive sites in chromatin between 15 and 17 kb upstream of the mouse pro alpha 2 (I) collagen gene. These sites were detected in cells that produce type I collagen but not in cells that do not express these genes. A construction containing the sequences from -17 kb to +54 bp of the mouse pro alpha 2 (I) collagen(More)
Rat and human fetal brain tau were probed with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (tau-1, AT8, 8D8, RT97, SMI31, SMI34) that distinguish between paired helical filament (PHF)-tau of Alzheimer's disease and normal adult brain tau. These antibodies discriminate between normal and PHF-tau because their epitopes are phosphorylated in PHF-tau. Although only one(More)
Sleep is a whole-organism phenomenon accompanied by global changes in neural activity. We previously identified SLEEPLESS (SSS) as a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein required for sleep in Drosophila. Here we found that SSS is critical for regulating the sleep-modulating potassium channel Shaker. SSS and Shaker shared similar expression(More)
The axonal microtubule-associated protein, tau, is thought to play an important role in axonal growth and in the establishment of neuronal polarity. In adult human brain there are six alternatively spliced tau isoforms, which have different microtubule binding affinities in vitro. The tubulin-tau interaction is further modified by phosphorylation of tau(More)
Immunization against amyloid-beta has been suggested as a possible preventive or therapeutic treatment for Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that some individuals may have autoantibodies to amyloid-beta and that this may be protective. We analyzed the plasma of 365 individuals, drawn from a larger longitudinal epidemiological study, for the presence of(More)