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One-third of eukaryotic proteins are integrated within membranes, as are the targets of 40% of approved drugs. However, the lack of a general means of solubilizing, stabilizing and structurally characterizing active membrane proteins has frustrated efforts to understand their mechanisms and exploit their potential value. Here we report that bilayer disks(More)
Sleep is an essential process conserved from flies to humans. The importance of sleep is underscored by its tight homeostatic control. Through a forward genetic screen, we identified a gene, sleepless, required for sleep in Drosophila. The sleepless gene encodes a brain-enriched, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein. Loss of SLEEPLESS protein(More)
Amyloid-beta, the major constituent of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease, is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by proteolysis. Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) containing forms of APP (APP751/770) interact with a multifunctional endocytic receptor, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), which modulates its proteolytic(More)
Amyloid-beta, the peptide that deposits as senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease, is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by a gamma secretase-mediated intramembranous cleavage. In addition to amyloid-beta, this cleavage produces a carboxyl-terminal intracellular fragment which has an unknown function. The carboxyl-terminal domain of APP(More)
Membrane sorting between secretory and endocytic organelles is predominantly controlled by small carrier vesicles or tubules that have specific protein coats on their cytoplasmic surfaces. Clathrin-clathrin-adaptor coats function in many steps of intracellular transport and are the most extensively studied of all transport-vesicle coats. In recent years,(More)
The Drosophila PAR domain protein 1 (Pdp1) gene encodes a transcription factor with multiple functions. One isoform, PDP1epsilon, was proposed to be an essential activator of the core clock gene, Clock (Clk). However, a central clock function for PDP1epsilon was recently disputed, and genetic analysis has been difficult due to developmental lethality of(More)
The Dna J homologue, auxilin, acts as a co-chaperone for Hsc70 in the uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles during endocytosis. Biochemical studies have aided understanding of the uncoating mechanism but until now there was no structural information on how auxilin interacts with the clathrin cage. Here we have determined the three-dimensional structure of a(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpesvirus that persists for life and maintains extremely large numbers of T cells with select specificities in circulation. However, it is unknown how viral persistence impacts T cell populations in mucosal sites. We found that many murine (M)CMV-specific CD8s in mucosal tissues became resident memory T cells (TRM). These cells(More)
Immunization against amyloid-beta has been suggested as a possible preventive or therapeutic treatment for Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that some individuals may have autoantibodies to amyloid-beta and that this may be protective. We analyzed the plasma of 365 individuals, drawn from a larger longitudinal epidemiological study, for the presence of(More)
Sleep is a whole-organism phenomenon accompanied by global changes in neural activity. We previously identified SLEEPLESS (SSS) as a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein required for sleep in Drosophila. Here we found that SSS is critical for regulating the sleep-modulating potassium channel Shaker. SSS and Shaker shared similar expression(More)