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A chronic state of immune hyperactivation is a feature of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Studies on the molecular mechanisms by which HIV-1 can modulate the activation state of T cells indicate that both Nef and Tat can alter T cell activation. However, the vast majority of data has been obtained from experiments performed with(More)
Microglia are one of the main cell types to be productively infected by HIV-1 in the central nervous system (CNS). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and cysteinyl-leukotrienes such as LTC4 are some of the proinflammatory molecules produced in infected individuals that contribute to neuroinflammation. We therefore sought to investigate the role of leukotrienes (LTs) in(More)
The interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and RNA silencing pathways is complex and multifaceted. Essential for efficient viral transcription and supporting Tat-mediated transactivation of viral gene expression, the trans-activation responsive (TAR) element is a structured RNA located at the 5' end of all transcripts derived from(More)
The virion cores of the replication competent type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), a retrovirus, contain and RNA genome associated with nucleocapsid (NC) and reverse transcriptase (RT p66/p51) molecules. In vitro reconstructions of these complexes with purified components show that NC is required for efficient annealing of the primer tRNALys,3. In(More)
Eicosanoids, including cysteinylleukotrienes (cysLTs), are found in the central nervous system (CNS) of individuals infected with HIV-1. Few studies have addressed the contribution of cysLTs in HIV-1-associated CNS disorders. We demonstrate that conditioned medium from human astrocytes treated with leukotriene C4 (LTC4) increases the transmigration of(More)
BACKGROUND Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered as key mediators of the early events in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection at mucosal sites. Previous studies have shown that surface-bound virions and/or internalized viruses found in endocytic vacuoles of DCs are efficiently transferred to CD4+ T cells. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate(More)
Over the past decade, the number of reported human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)/Leishmania co-infections has risen dramatically, particularly in regions where both diseases are endemic. Although it is known that HIV-1 infection leads to an increase in susceptibility to Leishmania infection and leishmaniasis relapse, little remains known on how(More)
The Graffi murine leukemia virus (MuLV) was isolated in 1954 by Arnold Graffi, who characterized it as a myeloid leukemia-inducing retrovirus. He and his team, however, soon observed the intriguing phenomenon of hematological diversification, which corresponded to a decrease of myeloid leukemias and an increase of other types of leukemias. Recently, we(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) act as a portal for invasion by human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Here, we investigated whether virion-incorporated host cell membrane proteins can affect virus replication in DC-T-cell cocultures. Using isogenic viruses either devoid of or bearing host-derived leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), we showed that(More)