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US computer manufacturers-including IBM and Remington Rand-expanded into Europe after World War II. The companies overcame resistances and adjusted to different market conditions; how they did this, and why IBM succeeded more than others, is examined here. This article argues that IBM adeptly managed-or engineered-relationships with foreign governments and… (More)
This essay advocates for international histories of computing that either compare computing in two or more countries or that investigate interactions between countries. While the first are suited to identify causal factors, the latter augment social and cultural histories.