Corinna Howell

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Reduced median networks of African haplogroup L mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences were analyzed to determine the pattern of substitutions in both the noncoding control and coding regions. In particular, we attempted to determine the causes of the previously reported (Howell et al. 2004) violation of the molecular clock during the evolution of these(More)
W e must respond to the recent Commentary by our colleague Dr Bandelt (Bandelt, 2008). In brief, he is highly critical of the concept that rate estimates of mtDNA sequence evolution are time dependent and fit an exponential decay model (Ho et al., 2007). This is a complex issue, but we argue that many of Dr Bandelt’s arrows miss the target. Dr Bandelt(More)
Incubation of eosinophils (EOS) with alveolar macrophage (AM) supernatants isolated from asthmatic subjects followed by stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in enhancement of the capacity of EOS to elaborate leukotriene C4 (LTC4) (mean enhancement 169 +/- 37%, n = 31). Pretreatment of EOS with AM supernatants derived from normal(More)
Mice, exposed to the effects of the oral secretion of Ornithodorus savignyi by injection, revealed that a potent toxin is present in the secretion. Electrophoretic and chromatographic separations of the secretion showed a heterogeneous pattern of protein-like substances. Toxicity trials on these fractions showed that the toxic principle is protein in nature(More)
Human eosinophils (EOSs) stimulated under optimal conditions with 5 X 10(8) unopsonized zymosan particles at 37 degrees C for 30 minutes produced an average total immunoreactive leukotriene (LT) C4 of 1.6 ng per 10(6) EOSs, and 30% to 60% of the generated product remained cell associated. The dose-response characteristics of zymosan-induced LTC4 generation(More)
Electrophoretic and chromatographic separations of the salivary secretion of Amblyomma hebraeum showed a less complex protein pattern than that of Ornithodoros savignyi. A hyaluronidase active component was isolated. The haemolymph protein pattern showed a major protein fraction with a mobility slightly faster than that of bovine serum albumin.
The results describe experiments which demonstrate that the teleost Cyprinus carpio is capable of elaborating a substance which has analogous in vitro effects to that of mammalian chemokinetic lymphokines. In vitro stimulation of leucocytes from carp pronephros, both with antigens and mitogens, was used to provide culture supernatants which were applied to(More)