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CRISPR-Cas systems provide sequence-specific adaptive immunity against foreign nucleic acids(1,2). They are present in approximately half of all sequenced prokaryotes(3) and are expected to constitute a major barrier to horizontal gene transfer. We previously described nine distinct families of proteins encoded in Pseudomonas phage genomes that inhibit(More)
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common identifiable cause of diarrhoea in hospitalized patients. Current therapies rely on the administration of metronidazole or vancomycin, which reduce vegetative populations of C. difficile in the bowel. Recurrence of the disease when treatment with these antibiotics ceases indicates that metronidazole(More)
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), in combination with CRISPR associated (cas) genes, constitute CRISPR-Cas bacterial adaptive immune systems. To generate immunity, these systems acquire short sequences of nucleic acids from foreign invaders and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays as spacers. This adaptation process(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic pouchitis is an important long-term complication following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Antibiotic administration reduces symptoms of pouchitis, indicating that bacteria have a role in pathogenesis. The aim of the research was to investigate the bacterial content of pouches using nucleic acid-based methods. (More)
In prokaryotes, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and their associated (Cas) proteins constitute a defence system against bacteriophages and plasmids. CRISPR/Cas systems acquire short spacer sequences from foreign genetic elements and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays, generating a memory of past invaders. Defence(More)
The CRISPR-Cas prokaryotic 'adaptive immune systems' represent a sophisticated defence strategy providing bacteria and archaea with protection from invading genetic elements, such as bacteriophages or plasmids. Despite intensive research into their mechanism and application, how CRISPR-Cas systems are regulated is less clear, and nothing is known about the(More)
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a reemerging pathogen which causes bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Since 2008, a global outbreak of P. syringae pv. actinidiae has occurred, and in 2010 this pathogen was detected in New Zealand. The economic impact and the development of resistance in P. syringae pv. actinidiae and other pathovars(More)
A high carriage rate of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (MDREC) was observed in elderly residents in long-term care facilities. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was carried out to determine whether the probiotic product E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (Mutaflor) would compete with MDREC in the bowel and thereby reduce the prevalence of the(More)
OBJECTIVE Ileocolitis is a recognized feature of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and is likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of AS, in conjunction with the normal intestinal microbiota. In order to investigate the host immune response in AS, we measured cytokines in tissue culture following exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to(More)
Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 is a probiotic strain reported to increase resistance to epithelium-adherent and -invasive intestinal pathogens in experimental animals. To increase understanding of the relationship between strain HN001 and the bowel, transcription of selected genes in the mucosa of the murine small bowel was measured. Mice previously naive to(More)