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We studied endocytosis in chromaffin cells with both perforated patch and whole cell configurations of the patch clamp technique using cell capacitance measurements in combination with amperometric catecholamine detection. We found that chromaffin cells exhibit two relatively rapid, kinetically distinct forms of stimulus-coupled endocytosis. A more(More)
Spontaneous, short-lived, focal cytosolic Ca2+ transients were found for the first time and characterized in freshly dissociated chromaffin cells from mouse. Produced by release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and mediated by type 2 and perhaps type 3 ryanodine receptors (RyRs), these transients are quantitatively similar in magnitude and duration to Ca2+(More)
Activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) leads to an up-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class I antigen-processing pathway. Paradoxically, LMP-1 itself induces a subdominant CD8+ T-cell response and appears to have evolved to avoid immune recognition. Here we show(More)
In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), the malignant Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells interact with the host microenvironment to create an immunosuppressive network that protects the lymphoma from immune attack. These mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the role of the immunomodulatory protein galectin-1 (Gal-1) on Epstein-Barr virus-specific CD8(+) T cell(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive human brain malignancies. Even with optimal treatment, median survival is less than 6 months for patients with recurrent GBM. Immune-based therapies have the potential to improve patient outcome by supplementing standard treatment. Expression of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens in GBM tissues(More)
Recent studies on Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) have indicated that patients with active disease display functional impairment of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells due to expansion of regulatory T cells at sites of disease and in the peripheral blood. Adoptive cellular immunotherapy based on EBV-specific CD8+ T cells has been explored with limited success to date. It has(More)
Defective control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection by cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells might predispose to multiple sclerosis (MS) by allowing EBV-infected autoreactive B cells to accumulate in the central nervous system. We have treated a patient with secondary progressive MS with in vitro-expanded autologous EBV-specific CD8(+) T cells directed against viral(More)
Single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs) regulate multiple DNA transactions, including replication, transcription, and repair. We recently identified SSB1 as a novel protein critical for the initiation of ATM signaling and DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination. Here we report that germline Ssb1(-/-) embryos die at birth from(More)
Based on the life-time cost to the health care system, the Institute of Medicine has assigned the highest priority for a vaccine to control human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) disease in transplant patients and new born babies. In spite of numerous attempts successful licensure of a HCMV vaccine formulation remains elusive. Here we have developed a novel chimeric(More)
The TCR plays a critical role in recognizing intracellular pathogens and initiating pathways leading to the destruction of infected cells by the immune system. Although genetic variability is known to greatly impact on the human immune system and the outcome of infection, the influence of sequence variation leading to the inactivation or deletion of TCR(More)