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Neural progenitor proliferation, differentiation and migration are continually active in the rostral migratory stream of the adult brain. Here, we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4 is expressed prominently by the neuroblasts present in the subventricular zone and the rostral migratory stream. The neuregulins (NRG1-NRG3), which have been(More)
Synaptic plasticity underlies the adaptability of the mammalian brain, but has been difficult to study in living animals. Here we imaged the synapses between pre- and postganglionic neurons in the mouse submandibular ganglion in vivo, focusing on the mechanisms that maintain and regulate neurotransmitter receptor density at postsynaptic sites. Normally,(More)
Although neuronal migration is an essential process in development, how neural precursors reach their final destination in the nervous system is not well understood. Secreted molecules that are known to be involved in axon guidance are likely to play important roles in regulating neuronal migration, but an important issue that remains unclear is whether(More)
Much of what is currently known about the behavior of synapses in vivo has been learned at the mammalian neuromuscular junction, because it is large and accessible and also its postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are readily labeled with a specific, high-affinity probe, alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX). Neuron-neuron synapses have thus far been much less(More)
Fluorescent molecular tomographic (FMT) imaging can noninvasively monitor molecular function in living animals using specific fluorescent probes. However, macroscopic imaging methods such as FMT generally exhibit low anatomical details. To overcome this, we report a quantitative technique to image both structure and function by combining FMT and magnetic(More)
To examine the role of retrograde signals on synaptic maintenance, we inhibited protein synthesis in individual postsynaptic cells in vivo while monitoring presynaptic terminals. Within 12 h, axon terminals begin to atrophy and withdraw from normal postsynaptic sites. Structural similarities between this process and naturally occurring synapse elimination(More)
The polypeptide snake toxin alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) has been used in hundreds of studies on the structure, function, and development of the neuromuscular junction because it binds tightly and specifically to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at this synapse. We show here that BTX also binds to and blocks a subset of GABA(A) receptors(More)
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