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Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves are consumed as dietary supplements to counteract chronic, age-related neurological disorders. We have applied high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to define the transcriptional effects in the cortex and hippocampus of mice whose diets were supplemented with the herbal extract. Gene expression analysis focused on the(More)
Sterigmatocystin (ST) and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) are two polyketide-derived Aspergillus mycotoxins synthesized by functionally identical sets of enzymes. ST, the compound produced by Aspergillus nidulans, is a late intermediate in the AFB(1) pathway of A. parasiticus and A. flavus. Previous biochemical studies predicted that five oxygenase steps are(More)
The biosynthesis of the potent environmental carcinogen aflatoxin B(1) is initiated by norsolorinic acid synthase (NorS), a complex of an iterative type I polyketide synthase and a specialized yeast-like pair of fatty acid synthases. NorS has been partially purified from Aspergillus parasiticus, has been found to have a mass of approximately 1.4 x 10(6) Da,(More)
BACKGROUND Aflatoxin B1 (compound 5. ) is a potent environmental carcinogen produced by certain Aspergillus species. Its first stable biosynthetic precursor is the anthraquinone norsolorinic acid (compound 3. ), which accumulates in the Aspergillus mutant strain NOR-1. Biochemical and genetic evidence suggest that this metabolite is synthesized in vivo by a(More)
EGb 761 is a standardized extract from the Ginkgo biloba leaf and is purported to improve age-related memory impairment. The acute and chronic effect of EGb 761 on synaptic transmission and plasticity in hippocampal slices from young adult (8-12 weeks) and aged (18-24 months) C57Bl/6 mice was tested because hippocampal plasticity is believed to be a key(More)
Marine microbial populations collected from the Hawaiian Islands were screened for antimicrobial activity. A blue metabolite was identified from mixed cell cultures, but production was not evident in pure cultures. Experiments designed to probe the synergistic role of the microorganisms are presented. Full characterization of the blue natural product,(More)
Supplementation of diets with plant extracts such as ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) (definition see editorial) for health and prevention of degenerative diseases is popular. However, it is often difficult to analyse the biological activities of plant extracts due to their complex nature and the possible synergistic and/or antagonistic effects of their(More)
Only a handful of aziridine-containing natural products have been identified out of the more than 100,000 natural products characterized to date. Among this class of compounds, only the azinomycins (azinomycin A and B) and ficellomycin contain an unusual 1-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane ring system, which has been reported to be the reason for theDNAcrosslinking(More)
Azinomycin B is an environmental DNA crosslinking agent produced by the soil microorganism Streptomyces sahachiroi. While the agent displays potent cytotoxic activities against leukemic cell lines and animal mouse models, the lack of a consistent supply of the natural product has hampered detailed biological investigations on the compound, including its(More)
It is proposed that analysis of global gene expression would provide an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cardiac remodeling. However, previous studies have only provided "snapshots" of differential gene expression. Furthermore, the differences in gene expression between regions of the heart that can result in sampling variability have not been(More)