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BACKGROUND Antioxidant defenses are one possible mechanism for decreasing oxidative damage and its potentially negative effects on age-related bone mass. OBJECTIVE This study cross-sectionally examined whether higher dietary intakes, total intakes, and serum concentrations of antioxidants may be associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD). DESIGN(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of calcium with vitamin D supplementation for preventing hip and other fractures in healthy postmenopausal women remains equivocal. METHODS We recruited 36,282 postmenopausal women, 50 to 79 years of age, who were already enrolled in a Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial. We randomly assigned participants to receive 1000(More)
CONTEXT The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) previously found increased risk for dementia and no effect on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in women treated with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of CEE alone and CEE plus MPA on incidence of probable dementia and MCI(More)
BACKGROUND Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), which maintains cellular concentrations of glutathione, may be a marker of oxidative stress, and GGT itself may produce oxidative stress. We performed a prospective study to examine whether serum GGT predicts diabetes and hypertension. METHODS Study participants were 4844 black and white men and women 18-30(More)
CONTEXT Observational studies and polyp recurrence trials are not conclusive regarding the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of colorectal cancer, necessitating a primary prevention trial. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of a low-fat eating pattern on risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The(More)
IMPORTANCE Menopausal hormone therapy continues in clinical use but questions remain regarding its risks and benefits for chronic disease prevention. OBJECTIVE To report a comprehensive, integrated overview of findings from the 2 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone therapy trials with extended postintervention follow-up. DESIGN, SETTING, AND(More)
A combined analysis of genome scans for obesity was undertaken using the interim results from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Blood Pressure Program. In this research project, four multicenter networks of investigators conducted eight individual studies. Data were available on 6,849 individuals from four ethnic groups (white, black,(More)
OBJECTIVE The effectiveness of intentional weight loss in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes is unknown. This report describes 1-year changes in CVD risk factors in a trial designed to examine the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the incidence of major CVD events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This(More)
CONTEXT The Women's Health Initiative Estrogen-Alone Trial was stopped early after a mean of 7.1 years of follow-up because of an increased risk of stroke and little likelihood of altering the balance of risk to benefit by the planned trial termination date. Postintervention health outcomes have not been reported. OBJECTIVE To examine health outcomes(More)
CONTEXT Obesity, typically measured as body mass index of 30 or higher, has 3 subclasses: obesity 1 (30-34.9); obesity 2 (35-39.9); and extreme obesity (> or =40). Extreme obesity is increasing particularly rapidly in the United States, yet its health risks are not well characterized. OBJECTIVE To determine how cardiovascular and mortality risks differ(More)