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BACKGROUND Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were(More)
In the winter of 1998/1999, sheep on a farm in the province of North Holland, The Netherlands, died from subacute and chronic liver fluke disease despite four previous treatments with triclabendazole (TCBZ). Faecal examinations of sheep and cattle on the farm showed high number of liver fluke eggs. In a randomised clinical trial, the fluke egg output was(More)
From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis. The lowest tick density was observed in the heather area(More)
An evaluation of the genetic diversity within Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) may provide an insight into its potential to respond to environmental changes, such as anthelmintic use or climate change. In this study, we determined the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of > 400 flukes from 29 individual cattle, from 2 farms in the Netherlands, as an exemplar of(More)
We describe an ex vivo rat infection model to study protective immunity against Fasciola hepatica at the gut level. An exact number of newly excysted juveniles (NEJs) was injected into a gut segment with an intact blood supply and which was still attached to a live anaesthetized rat. NEJs that penetrated the gut wall during the following 6 h were recovered(More)
A diagnostic ELISA with recombinant Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L-like protease as antigen was developed to detect antibodies against F. hepatica in sheep and cattle. The recombinant cathepsin L-like protease was generated by functional expression of the cDNA from adult stage F. hepatica flukes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Specificity and sensitivity of the(More)
The prevalence of anthelmintic resistant nematodes in sheep was investigated in 1994 with a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and an egg hatch assay (EHA) on 71 farms in the Netherlands. A benzimidazole (oxfendazole) was tested on 70 farms, ivermectin on 51 farms, and levamisole on 35 farms. Based on the FECRT benzimidazole resistance was present on(More)
We investigated the immune effector mechanisms that underlie protection against F. hepatica in the gut wall of immune rats, using (immuno)histochemistry. In the lamina propria of immune Wistar rats, four weeks after oral infection, frequencies of IgE-positive cells, eosinophils and mucosal mast cells were significantly increased, compared with naïve rats.(More)
The reappearance of nematode eggs in faeces after ivermectin treatment was studied in 104 horses on 10 farms during the stabling period. Faecal samples were taken at weekly intervals. Sampling was discontinued when the mean egg output per farm was > 10% of the pre-treatment egg output. This point was reached after 63 days, when the mean output of eggs had(More)
Abomasa, blood samples and faecal samples for examination of nematode infections were collected from 125 dairy cows during the period November 1997-October 1998. Of these, 12 had no grazing history and were, therefore, excluded from this study. From the remaining 113, 88.5% had nematode eggs in the faeces. Larval identification of the positive cultures(More)