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Ticks are important ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, and tick infestations economically impact cattle production worldwide. Control of cattle tick infestations has been primarily by application of acaricides which has resulted in selection of resistant ticks and environmental pollution. Herein we discuss data from tick vaccine application in(More)
The gene that encodes the tick protective antigen, 4D8, was cloned from 10 species belonging to 6 genera, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences were analyzed. 4D8 nucleotide and protein sequences were conserved among these tick species with identity/similarity between 65-98 and 60-98%, respectively. The function of 4D8 was characterized by RNA(More)
Organisms in the genus Anaplasma are obligate intracellular pathogens that multiply in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. The type species, A. marginale, causes bovine anaplasmosis and only infects ticks and ruminants. A. phagocytophilum causes human and animal granulocytic anaplasmosis, and genetically closely related strains show a wide host range,(More)
Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the rickettsial tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), is vectored by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A. marginale undergoes a complex developmental cycle in ticks which results in infection of salivary glands from where the pathogen(More)
Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases, but the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. Babesia spp. are tick-borne pathogens that cause a disease called babesiosis in a wide range of(More)
Emerging tick-borne diseases of humans and animals have occurred frequently during the past 30 years. These disease outbreaks appear to result from changes in the distribution of tick and vertebrate hosts, and the introduction of humans and domestic animals into tick–pathogen–wildlife cycles. Use of molecular technologies now available for identification of(More)
Subolesin was recently shown in vaccine and RNA interference (RNAi) studies to protect against tick infestations and to affect tick feeding, reproduction, and development as well as infection of host cells by Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Recent experiments provided evidence that infection of both tick and vertebrate host cells with these two(More)
cDNA expression library immunization (ELI) and analysis of expressed sequenced tags (EST) in a mouse model of tick infestations was used to identified cDNA clones that affected I. scapularis. Three protective antigens against larval tick infestations, 4F8, with homology to a nucleotidase, and 4D8 and 4E6 of unknown function, were selected for further(More)
Ticks are ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals, and humans. A more comprehensive understanding of tick function and the tick-pathogen interface is needed to formulate improved tick-control methods. RNA interference (RNAi) is the most widely used gene-silencing technique in ticks where the use of other methods of genetic manipulations has been limited.(More)
The effect of Fasciola hepatica parasite burden on the detection of excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens in sera and feces of experimentally infected sheep was evaluated using a double antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Four groups of five sheep each were used. The first three groups were infected with 50, 100 and 200(More)