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Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. Recent evidence suggests that proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair, are sensitive targets of Cd toxicity. Cd by interfering and inhibiting these DNA repair processes(More)
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein, acts as an early modulator of integrin signaling cascade, regulating basic cellular functions. In transformed cells, unopposed FAK signaling has been considered to promote tumor growth, progression and metastasis. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of FAK(More)
Liver fibrosis results from sustained wound healing response to chronic liver injury. Liver cirrhosis, the end stage of the fibrotic process, is characterized by disruption of the entire liver architecture and reduced hepatocyte regenerative ability. Hepatic stimulator substance (HSS) is a liver-specific growth factor triggering hepatocyte proliferation in(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that regulate the storage and catabolism of dietary fats. PPARs constitute molecular targets for the treatment of human metabolic disorders, and also play a crucial role in inflammatory-related disease and cancer. Recent evidence has revealed the presence(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) has currently been considered as molecular target for the treatment of human metabolic disorders. Experimental data from in vitro cultures, animal models, and clinical trials have shown that PPAR-gamma ligand activation regulates differentiation and induces cell growth arrest and apoptosis in a(More)
BACKGROUND DNA repair is a major defense mechanism, which contributes to the maintenance of genetic sequence, minimizing cell death, mutation rates, replication errors, DNA damage persistence and genomic instability. Alterations of proteins participating in DNA repair mechanisms have been associated with several aspects of cancer biology. The present study(More)
BACKGROUND Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous, highly conserved proteins across all the species and play essential roles in maintaining protein stability within the cells under normal conditions, while preventing stress-induced cellular damage. HSPs were also overexpressed in various types of cancer, being associated with tumor cell proliferation,(More)
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a common and quite costly medical problem, primarily affecting the female population which may be due to a shorter urethra. The bacterium Escherichia coli are mainly responsible for most uncomplicated UTIs. Cranberry antibacterial effects have widely been studied in vitro, and laboratory and clinical studies have(More)
BACKGROUND Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is well established as an early and specific biomarker of kidney disease. Recent evidence further suggests that NGAL may play a crucial role in vascular remodeling and plaque instability during the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS Plasma NGAL concentrations measured using a solid-phase(More)
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) is an extensively studied ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptor that functions as transcription factor and plays an important role in diverse biological processes, such as lipid metabolism and insulin sensitization. Recent studies have demonstrated that PPARγ is over-expressed in many tumor types,(More)