Constantine Bitsaktsis

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Numerous studies have demonstrated that targeting Ag to Fc receptors (FcR) on APCs can enhance humoral and cellular immunity. However, studies are lacking that examine both the use of FcR-targeting in generating immune protection against infectious agents and the use of FcRs in the induction of mucosal immunity. Francisella tularensis is a category A(More)
Infection with various human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) is prevalent, with rates as high as 80 % within the general population. Primary infection occurs during childhood through respiratory or urino-oral transmission. While the majority of individuals exhibit asymptomatic latent infection, those immunocompromised persons are at risk for viral reactivation and(More)
Francisella tularensis is a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine and the correlates of protection are not well understood. In particular, the relationship between the humoral and cellular immune response to F. tularensis and the relative importance of each in protection is controversial. Yet, understanding this relationship will(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Discusses recent developments in the study of immunity and host defense against the monocytic ehrlichiae in 2003 and 2004. The review does not address anaplasmoses, as the anaplasmae were recently re-classified into the genus Anaplasma, and are distinct in cell tropism from the ehrlichiae. RECENT FINDINGS The features of the immune(More)
The roles(s) of CD8 T cells during infections by intracellular bacteria that reside in host cell endocytic compartments are not well understood. Our previous studies in a mouse model of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis indicated that CD8 T cells are not essential for immunity. However, we have observed an unexpected role for these cells during challenge(More)
To address the role of cellular immunity during ehrlichia infection, we have used a newly described model of monocytic ehrlichiosis that results from infection of mice by an ehrlichia that was isolated from an Ixodes ovatus tick (Ixodes ovatus ehrlichia, IOE). Immunocompetent C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility to IOE(More)
Although cellular immunity is essential for host defense during intracellular bacterial infections, humoral immunity can also play a significant role in host defense during infection by some intracellular bacteria, including the ehrlichiae. Antibodies can protect susceptible SCID mice from fatal Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection, an observation that has been(More)
BACKGROUND The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with both intracellular and extracellular phases and could reasonably be expected to express distinct phenotypes in these environments. The presence of a capsule on this bacterium has been controversial with some groups finding such a(More)
Although humoral immunity has been shown to contribute to host defense during intracellular bacterial infections, its role has generally been ancillary. Instead, CD4 T cells are often considered to play the dominant role in protective immunity via their production of type I cytokines. Our studies of highly pathogenic Ehrlichia bacteria isolated from Ixodes(More)
To address the role of cellular immunity during ehrlichia infection, we have utilized a model of monocytic ehrlichiosis that results from infection of mice by Ixodes ovatus ehrlichia (IOE). Although ehrlichiosis in humans is largely a disease of immunocompromised individuals, the use of the IOE model has allowed us to identify factors required for host(More)