Constantin F. Urban

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Neutrophils are the first line of defense at the site of an infection. They encounter and kill microbes intracellularly upon phagocytosis or extracellularly by degranulation of antimicrobial proteins and the release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). NETs were shown to ensnare and kill microbes. However, their complete protein composition and the(More)
Neutrophils phagocytose and kill microbes upon phagolysosomal fusion. Recently we found that activated neutrophils form extracellular fibres that consist of granule proteins and chromatin. These neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) degrade virulence factors and kill Gram positive and negative bacteria. Here we show for the first time that Candida albicans,(More)
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) play an important role in innate immunity to microbial infections. NETs have been described in several species, but the molecular details of NET formation and their role in infection has not been addressed, partly because we lack optimal experimental models. Here we describe tools to investigate NET formation in(More)
BACKGROUND Aspergillus spp infection is a potentially lethal disease in patients with neutropenia or impaired neutrophil function. We showed previously that Aspergillus hyphae, too large for neutrophil phagocytosis, are inhibited by reactive oxygen species-dependent neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. This process is defective in chronic(More)
Many microbial pathogens evolved to circumvent the attack of neutrophils, which are essential effector cells of the innate immune system. Here we review six major strategies that pathogenic bacteria and fungi use to evade neutrophil defences: (i) turning on survival and stress responses, (ii) avoiding contact, (iii) preventing phagocytosis, (iv) surviving(More)
Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia-derived sepsis. Myeloid related protein 8 (MRP8, S100A8) and MRP14 (S100A9) are the most abundant cytoplasmic proteins in neutrophils. They can form MRP8/14 heterodimers that are released upon cell stress stimuli. MRP8/14 reportedly exerts antimicrobial activity, but in acute fulminant sepsis models(More)
The Gram negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the secretory diarrheal disease cholera, which has traditionally been classified as a noninflammatory disease. However, several recent reports suggest that a V. cholerae infection induces an inflammatory response in the gastrointestinal tract indicated by recruitment of innate immune(More)
Neutrophils are armed with both oxidant-dependent and -independent pathways for killing pathogens. Activation of the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase constitutes an emergency response to infectious threat and results in the generation of antimicrobial reactive oxidants. In addition, NADPH oxidase activation in(More)
To prevent the spread of pathogens neutrophils as the first line of defense are able to release Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs), a recently discovered form of immune response. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be essential for many different induction routes of NET formation. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation has(More)
NADPH oxidase is a crucial enzyme in mediating antimicrobial host defense and in regulating inflammation. Patients with chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generation of reactive oxidant intermediates (ROIs), suffer from life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. The mechanisms by(More)