Conrado J. Calvo

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Atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias can be perpetuated by up-regulation of inward rectifier potassium channels. Thus, it may be beneficial to block inward rectifier channels under conditions in which their function becomes arrhythmogenic (e.g., inherited gain-of-function mutation channelopathies, ischemia, and chronic and vagally mediated atrial(More)
BACKGROUND Blockade of inward-rectifier K+ channels by chloroquine terminates reentry in cholinergic atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unknown whether inward-rectifier K+ channels and reentry are also important in maintaining stretch-induced AF (SAF). We surmised that reentry underlies SAF, and that abolishing reentry with chloroquine terminates SAF(More)
Maintenance of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) by fast rotors in the left atrium (LA) or at the pulmonary veins (PVs) is not fully understood. To gain insight into this dynamic and complex process, we studied the role of the heterogeneous distribution of transmembrane currents in the PVs and LA junction (PV-LAJ) in the localization of rotors in the PVs.(More)
Spatial dispersion of action potential duration (APD) is a substrate for the maintenance of cardiac fibrillation, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the role played by spatial APD dispersion in fibrillatory dynamics. We used an in vitro model in which spatial gradients in the expression of ether-à-go-go-related (hERG) protein, and(More)
Panoramic optical mapping is the primary method for imaging electrophysiological activity from the entire outer surface of Langendorff-perfused hearts. To date, it is the only method of simultaneously measuring multiple key electrophysiological parameters, such as transmembrane voltage and intracellular free calcium, at high spatial and temporal resolution.(More)
OBJECTIVE A safety threshold for baseline rhythm R-wave amplitudes during follow-up of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) has not been established. We aimed to analyse the amplitude distribution and undersensing rate during spontaneous episodes of ventricular fibrillation (VF), and define a safety amplitude threshold for baseline R-waves. (More)
Many QRS boundaries detectors have been previously proposed and have showed good performance with conventional ECG databases. In this study, two of such algorithms, one based on empirical mode decomposition and one based on the curve-length transformation were tested against a database obtained from patients with an implanted CRT device. This is a case of(More)
AIMS Pulmonary vein ganglia (PVG) are targets for atrial fibrillation ablation. However, the functional relevance of PVG to the normal heart rhythm remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether PVG can modulate sinoatrial node (SAN) function. METHODS AND RESULTS Forty-nine C57BL and seven Connexin40+/EGFP mice were studied. We used(More)
BACKGROUND Early prognosis in comatose survivors after cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation (VF) is unreliable, especially in patients undergoing mild hypothermia. We aimed at developing a reliable risk-score to enable early prediction of cerebral performance and survival. METHODS Sixty-one out of 239 consecutive patients undergoing mild(More)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia seen in clinical practice. Despite of new technological breakthroughs and the understanding of the mechanisms underlying AF, based on animal models and ablation procedures in patients, the antiarrhythmic drugs remain the main therapeutic strategy to restore and maintain the sinus rhythm. New(More)