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Damping characteristics of the musculoskeletal system were investigated during rapid voluntary wrist flexion movements. Oscillations about the final position were induced by introducing a load with the characteristics of negative damping, which artificially reduced the damping of the wrist. Subjects responded to increases in the negatively damped load by(More)
In order to study the roles of muscle mechanics and reflex feedback in stabilizing movement, experiments were conducted in which healthy human subjects performed targeted wrist movements under conditions where the damping of the wrist was reduced with a load having the property of negative viscosity. If the movement speed and negative viscosity. If the(More)
In order to determine the maximum joint stiffness that could be produced by cocontraction of wrist flexor and extensor muscles, experiments were conducted in which healthy human subjects stabilized a wrist manipulandum that was made mechanically unstable by using positive position feedback to create a load with the characteristics of a negative spring. To(More)
The host-associated differentiation (HAD) hypothesis states that higher trophic levels in parasitic associations should exhibit similar divergence in case of host sympatric speciation. We tested HAD on populations of Aphidius ervi the main parasitoid of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, emerging from host populations specialized on either alfalfa or red(More)
Various factors shape the response of plants to herbivorous insects, including wounding patterns, specific chemical effectors and feeding habits of the attacking herbivore. Here we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of the plant's response to wounding and herbivory, using as a model potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) subjected to mechanical(More)
Seasonal abundance of spider mites and their predators on red raspberry was studied in 1993 and 1994 at 2 agricultural locations near Quebec City, Canada. Three raspberry systems, wild raspberry, pesticide-free cultivated raspberry, and commercial raspberry treated with a variety of pesticides, were sampled at frequent intervals. Tetranychus mcdanieli(More)
Browsing by overabundant deer modifies plant communities and alters forest regeneration, which can indirectly impact associated insect fauna. We tested the hypothesis that the response of insect communities to changes in deer abundance should depend on the strength of their association with plants, which we considered as a key functional trait. Seven years(More)
Studies have reported the potential of protease inhibitors to engineer insect resistance in transgenic plants but the general usefulness of this approach in crop protection still remains to be established. Insects have evolved strategies to cope with dietary protease inhibitors, such as the use of proteases recalcitrant to inhibition, that often make the(More)
Insect parasitoids and their insect hosts represent a wide range of parasitic trophic relations that can be used to understand the evolution of biotic diversity on earth. Testing theories of coevolution between hosts and parasites is based on factors directly involved in host susceptibility and parasitoid virulence. We used controlled encounters with(More)
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