Conor Penfold

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Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated the involvement of the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Hyperactivity in the amygdala and hypoactivity in the vlPFC have been reported in manic bipolar patients scanned during the performance of an affective faces task. Whether this pattern of(More)
In executive function, specifically in response inhibition, numerous studies support the essential role for the inferior frontal cortex (IFC). Hypoactivation of the IFC during response-inhibition tasks has been found consistently in subjects with bipolar disorder during manic and euthymic states. The aim of this study was to examine whether reduced IFC(More)
Recent evidence suggests that putting feelings into words activates the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and suppresses the response of the amygdala, potentially helping to alleviate emotional distress. To further elucidate the relationship between brain structure and function in these regions, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were(More)
OBJECTIVE Although several lines of evidence implicate gray matter abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in patients with bipolar disorder, findings have been largely inconsistent across studies. Differences in patients' medication status or mood state or the application of traditional volumetric methods that are insensitive(More)
Structural neuroimaging studies of the amygdala and hippocampus in bipolar disorder have been largely inconsistent. This may be due in part to differences in the proportion of subjects taking lithium or experiencing an acute mood state, as both factors have recently been shown to influence gray matter structure. To avoid these problems, we evaluated(More)
BACKGROUND Patterns of abnormal neural activation have been observed during working memory tasks in bipolar I depression, yet the neural changes associated with bipolar II depression have yet to be explored. METHOD An n-back working memory task was administered during a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging scan in age- and gender-matched groups of 19(More)
Introduction: Bipolar (BP) disorder is a severe chronic mental illness characterized by dramatic mood swings between mania and depression. Several lines of evidence have implicated disruptions of prefrontal cortex and amygdala, known components of an emotion regulatory network. Recent data from our group have shown such a disruption occurs during an emotion(More)
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