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The conditions of everyday life are such that people often hear speech that has been degraded (e.g., by background noise or electronic transmission) or when they are distracted by other tasks. However, it remains unclear what role attention plays in processing speech that is difficult to understand. In the current study, we used functional magnetic(More)
Feedback connections among auditory cortical regions may play an important functional role in processing naturalistic speech, which is typically considered a problem solved through serial feed-forward processing stages. Here, we used fMRI to investigate whether activity within primary auditory cortex (PAC) is sensitive to the perceived clarity of degraded(More)
Whereas low-level sensory processes can be linked to macroanatomy with great confidence, the degree to which high-level cognitive processes map onto anatomy is less clear. If function respects anatomy, more accurate intersubject anatomical registration should result in better functional alignment. Here, we use auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing in Western societies. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that this is due to reduced exposure to environmental allergens and infections during early life. OBJECTIVES To examine factors associated with a diagnosis of AD at 3.5 years of age, especially those factors implicated by the hygiene(More)
A microprobe of protons with an energy of 17 million electron volts is used to quantitatively image three-dimensional hydrogen distributions at a lateral resolution better than 1 micrometer with high sensitivity. Hydrogen images of a <110>-textured undoped polycrystalline diamond film show that most of the hydrogen is located at grain boundaries. The(More)
Thirty-five patients kept in a sitting position for 5 min after a standard extradural injection in labour were compared with 54 patients maintained in the left lateral position throughout. The mean upper limit of analgesia was unchanged. A significant shift of the mean lower limit occurred in the sitting patients (P = 0.05, two-tailed), but contrary to(More)
Probabilistic maps are useful in functional neuroimaging research for anatomical labeling and for data analysis. The degree to which a probability map can accurately estimate the location of a structure of interest in a new individual depends on many factors, including variability in the morphology of the structure of interest over subjects, the(More)
We present an automatic segmentation method for the extraction of first Heschl's gyrus (HG), the morphological landmark for human primary auditory cortex. Extracted HG regions can be used to test functional hypotheses about this area using a region-of-interest (ROI)-based approach. The proposed technique consists of a coarse segmenta-tion phase using a(More)
We present an automatic method for the segmentation of the first transverse temporal gyrus of Heschl (HG), the morphological marker for primary auditory cortex in humans. The proposed technique utilizes a statistical anatomical atlas of the gyrus, generated from a set of training samples using principal component analysis. The training set consists of MRI(More)
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