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Inward rectifier K+ channels pass prominent inward currents, while outward currents are largely blocked. The inward rectification is due to block by intracellular Mg2+ and a Mg(2+)-independent process described as intrinsic gating. The rapid loss of gating upon patch excision suggests that cytoplasmic factors participate in gating. "Intrinsic" gating can be(More)
This review critically evaluates the literature on aminoglycoside pharmacokinetics in order to answer the question how fluid and tissue levels of the drugs relate to the development of ototoxic and nephrotoxic side effects. We will summarize the evidence that: (1) aminoglycosides do not accumulate in inner-ear fluids; (2) aminoglycoside levels in fluids do(More)
The driving force behind mandates from both the American Nurses' Association and the American Medical Association is an expectation that doctors and nurses will act as advocates for the participation of the patient in end-of-life treatment decisions. This mandate assumes that both groups are knowledgeable about advance directives and can advise patients on(More)
The inhibition of renal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by aminoglycoside antibiotics was characterized in the postmitochondrial fraction of a kidney homogenate from adult pigmented guinea pigs. Enzymatic activity was defined as the rate of decarboxylation of [14C]ornithine sensitive to a specific ODC inhibitor, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). The Km(More)
We quantitated the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in homogenates and subcellular fractions of inner ear tissues from the rat and guinea pig and demonstrate inhibition of cochlear ODC by the aminoglycoside neomycin. Subcellular fractionation showed the enzyme associated with the post-mitochondrial supernatant fraction in each of the tissues:(More)
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