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BACKGROUND Circadian disruptions through frequent transmeridian travel, rotating shift work, and poor sleep hygiene are associated with an array of physical and mental health maladies, including marked deficits in human cognitive function. Despite anecdotal and correlational reports suggesting a negative impact of circadian disruptions on brain function,(More)
Biological oscillators naturally exhibit stochastic fluctuations in period and amplitude due to the random nature of molecular reactions. Accurately measuring the precision of noisy oscillators and the heterogeneity in period and strength of rhythmicity across a population of cells requires single-cell recordings of sufficient length to fully represent the(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus synchronizes circadian rhythms of cells and tissues throughout the body. In SCN neurons, rhythms of clock gene expression are suppressed by manipulations that hyperpolarize the plasma membrane or lower intracellular Ca(2+). However, whether clocks in other cells also depend on membrane potential and(More)
Primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) grown in high-K+ (25 mM; K25) medium progressively differentiate in vitro. Differentiation is noticeable after 3-4 days in vitro (DIV) and reach a mature stage after 8 DIV. Longer cultivation of CGCs (>13 DIV) triggers the processes of spontaneous cell death. However, if cultured in normal physiological K(More)
SK & F 96365, a receptor-mediated Ca2+ entry inhibitor, has been reported to inhibit Ca2+ responses to various agonists without affecting internal Ca2+ release and phosphoinositide turnover. Since muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated phosphoinositide turnover shows a marked dependence on factors affecting cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, the effects of(More)
Information about patients with primary immune deficiencies can be scarce because of the rarity of the disorders. Individual centers rarely have sufficient patients to educate trainees and garner collective wisdom. Registries for many diseases have proven their worth by providing essential information on disease spectrum, treatments and natural history.(More)
OBJECTIVES The efficacy and safety of ziconotide as a single agent has been evaluated in few short-term clinical trials and open-label studies. Ziconotide use is challenging given its adverse effect (AE) profile. The objective of this study is to describe the long-term efficacy and AEs of ziconotide used as an adjunct to other intrathecal (IT) agents in(More)
Atypical social gaze is commonly observed in individuals with autism (ASD) in real-world and clinical settings. Laboratory tasks using social stimuli have shown reduced gaze to face and eyes and reduced social orienting in high-functioning adults compared to neurotypical (NT) controls, although differences were often marginal, perhaps due to static stimuli(More)
Circadian rhythms impact a variety of behavioral and physiological functions contributing to longevity and successful reproduction. In their natural environments, individuals of a species are faced with a multitude of challenges and the coordination of internal processes and behavior with external pressures has been hypothesized to be an important target of(More)
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