Connie L Celum

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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial of oral antiretroviral therapy for use as preexposure prophylaxis among HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda. The(More)
BACKGROUND High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations. We aimed to assess the effect of ART use by patients infected with HIV-1 on risk of transmission to their uninfected partners. METHODS Participants in our prospective(More)
Increasing evidence demonstrates a substantial link between the epidemics of sexually transmitted HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 infection. More than 30 epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that prevalent HSV-2 is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition. Per-sexual contact transmission rates among couples from Rakai,(More)
BACKGROUND Extensive evidence from observational studies suggests a role for genital herpes in the HIV epidemic. A number of herpes vaccines are under development and several trials of the efficacy of HSV-2 treatment with acyclovir in reducing HIV acquisition, transmission, and disease progression have just reported their results or will report their(More)
Department of Epidemiology (R Heff ron MPH, Prof C Celum MD, J M Baeten MD), Global Health (C Celum, N Mugo MBChB, J Kiarie MBChB, J M Baeten), Medicine (C Celum, Prof R W Coombs MD, J M Baeten), and Laboratory Medicine (R W Coombs), University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Statistical Center for HIV/AIDS Research and Prevention (D Donnell PhD) and(More)
HIV prevalence is increasing worldwide because people on antiretroviral therapy are living longer, although new infections decreased from 3.3 million in 2002, to 2.3 million in 2012. Global AIDS-related deaths peaked at 2.3 million in 2005, and decreased to 1.6 million by 2012. An estimated 9.7 million people in low-income and middle-income countries had(More)
BACKGROUND Knowledge of factors that affect per-act infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is important for designing HIV-1 prevention interventions and for the mathematical modeling of the spread of HIV-1. METHODS We analyzed data from a prospective study of African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples. We assessed transmissions for linkage(More)
BACKGROUND Biomedical HIV prevention trials enroll sexually active women at risk of HIV and often discontinue study product during pregnancy. We assessed risk factors for pregnancy and HIV acquisition, and the effect of pregnancy on time off study drug in HIV Prevention Trials Network 039. METHODS A total of 1358 HIV negative, herpes simplex virus type(More)
Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to account for the largest number of new HIV infections in the United States, but limited data exist on independent risk factors for infection beyond the early 1990s. The HIV Network for Prevention Trials Vaccine Preparedness Study enrolled 3257 MSM in 6 US cities from 1995 to 1997. HIV seroincidence was 1.55 per 100(More)
Prior reports associating substance use with sexual risk behavior have generally used summary measures and have not adjusted for participants' background levels of substance use. In this 1999-2001 US study (the EXPLORE study), the authors determined whether substance use during sex was independently associated with sexual risk during recent sexual episodes,(More)