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This study examined the perception of the four Mandarin lexical tones by Mandarin-naïve Hong Kong Cantonese, Japanese, and Canadian English listener groups. Their performance on an identification task, following a brief familiarization task, was analyzed in terms of tonal sensitivities (A-prime scores on correct identifications) and tonal errors(More)
This study examined whether native English (NE) speakers perceive non-native tones of Mandarin in terms of their English intonational categories (Flat pitch, Question, Uncertainty, and Statement). The results indicated that NE listeners assimilated non-native tones to their native intonational categories, which share phonetic similarities with those of(More)
OBJECTIVES Many patients with vitamin B12 deficiency do not have anemia or macrocytosis, but the prevalence of B12 deficiency in patients without macrocytosis is not known. METHODS We investigated the prevalence of B12 deficiency among patients with normocytosis and microcytosis and recommended a screening strategy. All patients (n = 3714) with serum B12(More)
This study examines the acoustic properties of clear speech produced by non-native speakers of English and investigates whether the strategies that they employ to produce English vowels in clear speech are similar to those of native English speakers. Both groups of speakers exhibited similar acoustic-phonetic changes between clear and conversational speech.
This study examined how native Japanese speakers, who were naïve to Mandarin, categorized Mandarin tones (in citation form) into their native pitch–accent categories. Results showed that Japanese listeners categorized the nonnative Mandarin tones into their native pitch accent categories, in ways that were consistent with the phonetic features of listeners'(More)
This study examined the effect of native language background on listeners' perception of native and non-native vowels spoken by native (Hong Kong Cantonese) and non-native (Mandarin and Australian English) speakers. They completed discrimination and an identification task with and without visual cues in clear and noisy conditions. Results indicated that(More)
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