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Juvenile rats have been reported to be more sensitive to the acute neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid deltamethrin than adults. While toxicokinetic differences between juveniles and adults are documented, toxicodynamic differences have not been examined. Voltage-gated sodium channels, the primary targets of pyrethroids, are comprised of alpha and beta(More)
The relative sensitivity of rats and humans to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as toluene (TOL) and perchloroethylene (PERC) is unknown and adds to uncertainty in assessing risks for human exposures to VOCs. Recent studies have suggested that ion channels, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), are targets of TOL effects. However,(More)
Immunohistochemical expression in the neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the alpha(1A) or alpha(1E) subunit of the voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channel was examined in Long-Evans hooded rats on gestational day 18 and postnatal days 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 90, 360 and 720. On gestational day 18 and postnatal day 1, alpha(1A) immunoreactivity was more dense in(More)
Chlorotriazine herbicides disrupt luteinizing hormone (LH) release in female rats following in vivo exposure. Although the mechanism of action is unknown, significant evidence suggests that inhibition of LH release by chlorotriazines may be mediated by effects in the central nervous system. GABA(A) receptors are important for neuronal regulation of(More)
The developing nervous system has been identified as a potential target of pesticide exposure. Heptachlor is a cyclodiene pesticide that was widely used for many years, and for which inadvertent exposure to children and fetuses took place in the early 1980s; yet little is known regarding the developmental neurotoxicity of it and other cyclodienes. The aim(More)
In vivo exposure levels for neurotoxicants are often reported in parts per million (ppm) concentration in tissue, whereas exposure levels in experiments utilizing in vitro models are most commonly reported in micromolar (muM) concentration in the exposure solution. The present experiments sought to determine whether or not in vitro solution concentration(More)
Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor important in developing nervous system cells and is activated by a variety of signaling molecules. Aroclor 1254 (A1254), a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture, perturbs Ca(2+) homeostasis and increases CREB phosphorylation in rat neonatal cortical cell cultures in a time- and(More)
The neurotoxicant methylmercury (CH(3)Hg(+)) inhibits voltage-sensitive Na(+) and Ca(2+) currents in neuronal preparations following acute, in vitro, exposure. In the present study, effects on voltage-sensitive Na(+) (I(Na)) and Ca(2+) (I(Ca)) currents in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were examined following prolonged exposure to CH(3)Hg(+). When PC12 cells(More)
A number of metrics for comparing the branching structure of trees have been used as important tools in the quantitative analysis of evolutionary trees. Less attention has been paid to developing a general comparison methodology for different leaf-labeled N-trees such as classification trees and various types of dendrograms. In this paper a method for(More)
A primary target of pyrethroid insecticides are the voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs). Expression of VSSCs in oocytes from Xenopus laevis is an experimental model used to study the effects of pyrethroids. A common assumption when utilizing this model is that media concentration is an accurate substitute for tissue dose. This assumption may not hold(More)