Congshu Liao

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Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection(More)
BACKGROUND The nervous system in songbirds is an accessible system for studying vocal learning and memory in vertebrates. In the song system, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) is essential for song learning and the vocal motor pathway (VMP) is necessary for song production. The premotor robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) located in the VMP receives(More)
Zebra finches are ideal animals to investigate sex difference in songbirds. Only males can sing. The brain nuclei controlling song learning and production in males are considerably larger than in females. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a premotor nucleus, playing a key role in controlling singing. RA receives denser synapse inputs in males(More)
Interaction between dopamine (DA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in the brain plays an important role in learning and memory. In the songbirds, the premotor robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) receives excitatory glutamatergic inputs from the high vocal center (HVC) and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), as well as(More)
ZENK expression in vocal nuclei is associated with singing behavior. Area X is an important nucleus for learning and stabilizing birdsong. ZENK expression is higher in Area X compared to that in other vocal nuclei when birds are singing. To reveal the relationship between the ZENK expression in Area X and song crystallization, immunohistochemistry was used(More)
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