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Neuronal expression of vasopressin messenger RNA (mRNA) and peptide has been shown to be estrogen dependent. A 5.5-kb genomic DNA fragment, 5Ј of the AVP coding region, was used in luciferase reporter assays to measure transcriptional activation by either es-trogen receptor ␣ or ␤ in response to various treatments. ER␣ and ER␤ displayed differential(More)
In mammalian embryonic stem cells, the acquisition of pluripotency is dependent on Nanog, but the in vivo analysis of Nanog has been hampered by its requirement for early mouse development. In an effort to examine the role of Nanog in vivo, we identified a zebrafish Nanog ortholog and found that its knockdown impaired endoderm formation. Genome-wide(More)
Cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonists reduce body weight in rodents and humans, but their clinical utility as anti-obesity agents is limited by centrally mediated side effects. Here, we describe the first mixed CB(1) antagonist/CB(2) agonist, URB447 ([4-amino-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl](phenyl)methanone), which lowers food intake(More)
Ex vivo expansion of satellite cells and directed differentiation of pluripotent cells to mature skeletal muscle have proved difficult challenges for regenerative biology. Using a zebrafish embryo culture system with reporters of early and late skeletal muscle differentiation, we examined the influence of 2,400 chemicals on myogenesis and identified six(More)
The endocannabinoids (eCBs) anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) are inactivated by a two-step mechanism. First, they are carried into cells, and then anandamide is hydrolyzed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and 2-AG by monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). Here we provide evidence for a previously undescribed MGL activity expressed by microglial(More)
The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) regulates neurotransmission and neuroinflammation by activating CB1 cannabinoid receptors on neurons and CB2 cannabinoid receptors on microglia. Enzymes that hydrolyze 2-AG, such as monoacylglycerol lipase, regulate the accumulation and efficacy of 2-AG at cannabinoid receptors. We found that the recently(More)
Viral integration plays an important role in the development of malignant diseases. Viruses differ in preferred integration site and flanking sequence. Viral integration sites (VIS) have been found next to oncogenes and common fragile sites. Understanding the typical DNA features near VIS is useful for the identification of potential oncogenes, prediction(More)
H9N2 influenza A viruses have become endemic in different types of terrestrial poultry and wild birds in Asia, and are occasionally transmitted to humans and pigs. To evaluate the role of black-billed magpies (Pica pica) in the evolution of influenza A virus, we conducted two epidemic surveys on avian influenza viruses in wild black-billed magpies in(More)
Melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) is a cell adhesion molecule that is abnormally expressed in a variety of tumours and is closely associated with tumour metastasis. The role of MCAM in ovarian cancer development has not been fully studied. In this study, through immunohistochemical staining of ovarian cancer tissue samples and RNA interference to(More)
The DREB (dehydration-responsive element binding)-type transcription factors regulate the expression of stress-inducible genes by binding the DRE/CRT cis-elements in promoter regions. The upstream transcription factors that regulate the transcription of DREB transcription factors have not been clearly defined, although the function of DREB transcription(More)