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This paper addresses the issue of text normalization, an important yet often overlooked problem in natural language processing. By text normalization, we mean converting ‘informally inputted’ text into the canonical form, by eliminating ‘noises’ in the text and detecting paragraph and sentence boundaries in the text. Previously, text normalization issues(More)
This paper proposes a novel approach that utilizes a machine learning method to improve pivot-based statistical machine translation (SMT). For language pairs with few bilingual data, a possible solution in pivot-based SMT using another language as a "bridge" to generate source-target translation. However, one of the weaknesses is that some useful(More)
To overcome the scarceness of bilingual corpora for some language pairs in machine translation, pivot-based SMT uses pivot language as a "bridge" to generate source-target translation from sourcepivot and pivot-target translation. One of the key issues is to estimate the probabilities for the generated phrase pairs. In this paper, we present a novel(More)
With the advance in material science and the need to diversify market applications, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are modified by different surface coatings. However, how these surface modifications influence the effects of AgNPs on human health is still largely unknown. We have evaluated the uptake, toxicity and pharmacokinetics of AgNPs coated with(More)
Minimum error rate training is a popular method for parameter tuning in statistical machine translation (SMT). However, the optimization objective function may change drastically at each optimization step, which may induce MERT instability. We propose an alternative tuning method based on an ultraconservative update, in which the combination of an expected(More)
Cross-lingual projection encounters two major challenges, the noise from word-alignment error and the syntactic divergences between two languages. To solve these two problems, a semi-supervised learning framework of cross-lingual projection is proposed to get better annotations using parallel data. Moreover, a projection model is introduced to model the(More)