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Toll-like receptors play important roles in regulating immunity against microbial infections. Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) belongs to a subfamily comprising TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9. Human TLR8 mediates anti-viral immunity by recognizing ssRNA viruses, and triggers potent anti-viral and antitumor immune responses upon ligation by synthetic small molecular weight(More)
Autophagy is one of the downstream effector mechanisms for elimination of intracellular microbes following activation of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Although the detailed molecular mechanism for this cellular process is still unclear, Beclin 1, a key molecule for autophagy, has been suggested to play a role. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular(More)
Adenylyl cyclases (AC) are important regulators of airway smooth muscle function, because β-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists stimulate AC activity and increase airway diameter. We assessed expression of AC isoforms in human bronchial smooth muscle cells (hBSMC). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses detected expression of(More)
Tetraspanin CD82 suppresses cell migration, tumor invasion, and tumor metastasis. To determine the mechanism by which CD82 inhibits motility, most studies have focused on the cell surface CD82, which forms tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) with other transmembrane proteins, such as integrins. In this study, we found that CD82 undergoes endocytosis(More)
Although epithelial morphogenesis is tightly controlled by intrinsic genetic programs, the microenvironment in which epithelial cells proliferate and differentiate also contributes to the morphogenetic process. The roles of the physical microenvironment in epithelial morphogenesis, however, have not been well dissected. In this study, we assessed the impact(More)
SCOPE The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to various pathogen-derived factors and danger-associated molecules, mediating IL-1β maturation, therefore is involved in multiple inflammatory diseases. Curcumin has been shown to possess strong anti-inflammatory activity, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we sought to investigate the role and(More)
Synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) are potent adjuvants that accelerate and boost antigen-specific immune responses. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is the cellular receptor for these CpG-ODN. Previous studies have shown species-specific activation of mouse TLR9 (mTLR9) and human TLR9 (hTLR9) by their optimized CpG-ODN. The interaction between rabbit(More)
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising approach to treat various inflammatory disorders including multiple sclerosis. However, the fate of MSCs in the inflammatory microenvironment is largely unknown. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-studied animal model of multiple sclerosis. We demonstrated that autophagy(More)
BACKGROUND The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activation has generally been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and dendritic cells (DCs) are the most efficient antigen presenting cells that play an active role in the development of atherosclerosis. The effects of PPARgamma on DCs maturation and immune function remain unknown now and(More)
Proper intracellular localization of TLRs is essential for their signaling and biological function. Endocytosis constitutes a key step in protein turnover, as well as maintenance of TLR localization in plasma membrane and intracellular compartments, and thus provides important regulating points to their signaling. In this study, we demonstrate that adenylyl(More)