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There are 3 groups of drugs available for the treatment of patients with HIV disease. These are the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors ('nucleoside analogues') [zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, lamivudine and abacavir]; the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nevirapine, delavirdine and efavirenz); and the protease inhibitors(More)
OBJECTIVE The most important hepatic enzyme involved in the metabolism of protease inhibitors is cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Ritonavir (RIT) is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 and inhibits saquinavir (SQV) metabolism in healthy volunteers. In this study we investigated the kinetics of SQV when administered alone and in combination with RIT in HIV-infected(More)
OBJECTIVES The prevalence of erectile dysfunction in HIV-infected men is estimated to be 33%. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra; Pfizer Ltd, Sandwich, Kent, UK) is the first oral drug for this condition. Since sildenafil and the protease inhibitors are both metabolized by, and act as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics of the(More)
BACKGROUND With increasing antibiotic usage Clostridium difficile colitis is becoming more common. Surgery for fulminating C. difficile colitis, however, is rare because of the effectiveness of specific anticlostridial chemotherapy. Surgical outcome in five patients with fulminating C. difficile colitis involved in a recent outbreak of this disease is(More)
BACKGROUND Levonorgestrel subdermal implants are preferred contraceptives with an expected failure rate of <1% over 5 years. We assessed the effect of efavirenz- or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) coadministration on levonorgestrel pharmacokinetics. METHODS This nonrandomized, parallel group, pharmacokinetic evaluation was conducted in three(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir (SQV) hard gel when administered alone and in combination with nelfinavir (NLF) to HIV-positive patients. DESIGN Six patients receiving triple therapy (dual nucleoside plus SQV 600 mg three times daily) were studied. On the first study day blood samples were drawn for assay of SQV. Prior to the(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to develop and validate a population pharmacokinetic model in order to describe ritonavir-boosted saquinavir concentrations dosed twice and once daily in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients from the UK, Uganda and Thailand and to identify factors that may influence saquinavir pharmacokinetics. METHODS(More)
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES In Uganda, there are over one million people with HIV/AIDS. When advanced, this disease is characterized by life-threatening opportunistic infections. As the formal health sector struggles to confront this epidemic, new medicines from traditional sources are needed to complement control efforts. This study was conducted to(More)
Sustainable research capacity building requires training individuals at multiple levels within a supportive institutional infrastructure to develop a critical mass of independent researchers. At many African medical institutions, a PhD is important for academic promotion and is, therefore, an important focal area for capacity building programs. We examine(More)
INTRODUCTION Sub-dermal hormone implants, such as levonorgestrel (LNG), are a safe and desirable form of long-acting contraception, but their use among HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be compromised given the potential for a cytochrome P450 3A-mediated drug-drug interaction. Our study aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of LNG(More)