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Ammonium assimilation during the initial stages of Scots pine growth involves two cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS, EC: 6.3.1.2) isoenzymes encoded by separate genes, GS1a and GS1b. GS1a was most exclusively expressed in photosynthetic tissues of the seedling whereas GS1b was expressed ubiquitously showing higher levels in non-photosynthetic tissues such(More)
Maritime pine (Pinus pinasterAit.) is a widely distributed conifer species in Southwestern Europe and one of the most advanced models for conifer research. In the current work, comprehensive characterization of the maritime pine transcriptome was performed using a combination of two different next-generation sequencing platforms, 454 and Illumina. De novo(More)
BACKGROUND Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. (More)
Conifers are the most important group of gymnosperms, which include tree species of great ecological and economic importance that dominate large ecosystems and play an essential role in global carbon fixation. Nitrogen (N) economy has a special importance in these woody plants that are able to cope with seasonal periods of growth and development over a(More)
Nitrogen metabolism is one aspect of basic metabolism, which is still quite unknown in the field of plant-pathogen interactions. Evidence derived from previous studies conducted in our laboratory strongly suggests that during microbial pathogenesis an important nitrogen mobilization process takes place in diseased tissues. Here we describe the expression(More)
In the chloroplasts and in non-green plastids of plants, aspartate is the precursor for the biosynthesis of different amino acids and derived metabolites that play distinct and important roles in plant growth, reproduction, development or defence. Aspartate biosynthesis is mediated by the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1), which catalyses the(More)
During the life cycles of conifer trees, such as maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), large quantities of carbon skeletons are irreversibly immobilized in the wood. In energetic terms this is an expensive process, in which carbon from photosynthesis is channelled through the shikimate pathway for the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. This crucial metabolic(More)
BACKGROUND Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC: 6.3.1.2, L-glutamate: ammonia ligase ADP-forming) is a key enzyme in ammonium assimilation and metabolism of higher plants. The current work was undertaken to develop a more comprehensive understanding of molecular and biochemical features of GS gene family in poplar, and to characterize the developmental regulation(More)
Chloroplasts and plastids of nonphotosynthetic plant cells contain two aspartate (Asp) aminotransferases: a eukaryotic type (Asp5) and a prokaryotic-type bifunctional enzyme displaying Asp and prephenate aminotransferase activities (PAT). We have identified the entire Asp aminotransferase gene family in Nicotiana benthamiana and isolated and cloned the(More)
We have determined the urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels of eight professional cyclists during a 4-day and a 3-week stage races. Monitoring of heart rates was used to establish zones corresponding to different intensities of exercise. The urinary 8-OHdG excretion, expressed by body weight, increased significantly in the first day or the first(More)