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In murine macrophages, as a result of arginine catabolism during activation, citruline is produced under the effect of IFN-gamma and LPS, and ornithine and polyamines by IL-4 and IL-10. For proliferation, arginine is required from the extracellular medium and is used for protein synthesis. During activation, most arginine (>95% in 6 h) was metabolized,(More)
Incubation of bone marrow macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interferon gamma (IFN gamma) blocks macrophage proliferation. LPS treatment or M-CSF withdrawal arrests the cell cycle at early G1 and induces apoptosis. Treatment of macrophages with IFN gamma stops the cell cycle later, at the G1/S boundary, induces p21Waf1, and does not induce(More)
Macrophages play a critical role during the immune response. Like other cells of the immune system, macrophages are produced in large amounts and most of them die through apoptosis. Macrophages survive in the presence of soluble factors, such as IFN-gamma, or extracellular matrix proteins like decorin. The mechanism toward survival requires the blocking of(More)
Voltage-dependent K(+) channels (Kv) are involved in a number of physiological processes, including immunomodulation, cell volume regulation, apoptosis as well as differentiation. Some Kv channels participate in the proliferation and migration of normal and tumor cells, contributing to metastasis. Altered expression of Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels has been(More)
Voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) currents in macrophages are mainly mediated by Kv1.3, but biophysical properties indicate that the channel composition could be different from that of T-lymphocytes. K(+) currents in mouse bone marrow-derived and Raw-264.7 macrophages are sensitive to Kv1.3 blockers, but unlike T-cells, macrophages express Kv1.5. Because Shaker(More)
Adenosine is a potent endogenous anti-inflammatory agent released by cells in metabolically unfavorable conditions, such as hypoxia or ischemia. Adenosine modulates different functional activities in macrophages. Some of these activities are believed to be induced through the uptake of adenosine into the macrophages, while others are due to the interaction(More)
Arginine is processed by macrophages in response to the cytokines to which these cells are exposed. Th1-type cytokines induce NO synthase 2, which metabolizes arginine into nitrites, while the Th2-type cytokines produce arginase, which converts arginine into polyamines and proline. Activation of bone marrow-derived macrophages by these two types of(More)
Voltage-dependent K+ channels (VDPC) are expressed in most mammalian cells and involved in the proliferation and activation of lymphocytes. However, the role of VDPC in macrophage responses is not well established. This study was undertaken to characterize VDPC in macrophages and determine their physiological role during proliferation and activation.(More)
Sperm morphology has been identified as one characteristic which can be useful in the prediction of sperm fertility, therefore, we hope that this study aimed at establishing standardized morphological criteria might serve in future studies dealing with the search for sperm parameters which facilitate an estimation of sperm quality. For this purpose,(More)