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The basal ganglia (BG) are a highly organized network, where different parts are activated for specific functions and circumstances. The BG are involved in movement control, as well as associative learning, planning, working memory, and emotion. We concentrate on the "motor circuit" because it is the best understood anatomically and physiologically, and(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and full-length and truncated tyrosin kinase B receptor (TrkB) protein expression were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of individuals affected by long-lasting severe Alzheimer disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Since preliminary processing studies in(More)
BACKGROUND The regulatory function of the endothelium is altered in hypercholesterolemia, and the subsequent endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE To determine whether endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic patients is affected by replacing a saturated fat-enriched diet with a low-fat,(More)
The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is reviewed in light of recent advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the basal ganglia (BG). Current emphasis is placed on the parallel interactions between corticostriatal and corticosubthalamic afferents on the one hand, and internal feedback circuits modulating BG output through the(More)
In the past, functional changes in the circuitry of the basal ganglia that occur in Parkinson's disease were primarily analyzed with electrophysiological and 2-deoxyglucose measurements. The increased activity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) observed has been attributed to a reduction in inhibition mediated by the external segment of the globus pallidus(More)
Previous studies have shown that the A to G transition occurring at position -75 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site in the human apolipoprotein A-I gene may affect plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) response to changes in amount of dietary fat. We have examined the response(More)
In Parkinson's disease, nigrostriatal denervation leads to an overactivity of the subthalamic nucleus and its target areas, which is responsible of the clinical manifestations of the disease. Because the subthalamic nucleus uses glutamate as neurotransmitter and is innervated by glutamatergic fibers, pharmacological blockade of glutamate transmission might(More)
Inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the internal segment of the pallidum (GPi)/entopeduncular nucleus (EP) by deep brain stimulation or lesioning alleviates clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as reducing the side-effects of levodopa treatment. However, the effects of STN or entopeduncular nucleus (EP) lesion on(More)
RATIONALE Dyskinesia affects the majority of levodopa-treated parkinsonian patients within 5-10 years of treatment with levodopa. Clinical and preclinical observations suggest that an increase in serotoninergic transmission can contribute to the appearance of dyskinesias. It is thus conceivable that a modulation of synaptic dopamine (DA) levels induced by(More)
INTRODUCTION Due to the scarcity of donors and the fact that size is the main prognostic factor, Milan criteria have been used since 1996 to select hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients for liver transplantation. In 2001 UCSF criteria showed that including layer tumors did not reduce the survival results. The objective of this paper was to evaluate(More)