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The basal ganglia (BG) are a highly organized network, where different parts are activated for specific functions and circumstances. The BG are involved in movement control, as well as associative learning, planning, working memory, and emotion. We concentrate on the "motor circuit" because it is the best understood anatomically and physiologically, and(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and full-length and truncated tyrosin kinase B receptor (TrkB) protein expression were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of individuals affected by long-lasting severe Alzheimer disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Since preliminary processing studies in(More)
In the past, functional changes in the circuitry of the basal ganglia that occur in Parkinson's disease were primarily analyzed with electrophysiological and 2-deoxyglucose measurements. The increased activity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) observed has been attributed to a reduction in inhibition mediated by the external segment of the globus pallidus(More)
The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is reviewed in light of recent advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the basal ganglia (BG). Current emphasis is placed on the parallel interactions between corticostriatal and corticosubthalamic afferents on the one hand, and internal feedback circuits modulating BG output through the(More)
The effects of chronic D-1 and/or D-2 dopamine (DA) receptor blockade on a putative D-1 DA receptor-mediated behavioral function was studied in rats treated for 21 days with the selective D-1 antagonist SCH 23390, the predominantly D-2 antagonist haloperidol, or the combination of both drugs at the same daily doses. Four days after the last drug dose, the(More)
Inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the internal segment of the pallidum (GPi)/entopeduncular nucleus (EP) by deep brain stimulation or lesioning alleviates clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as reducing the side-effects of levodopa treatment. However, the effects of STN or entopeduncular nucleus (EP) lesion on(More)
Trophic factors, administered systemically or delivered via genetically-modified cells grafted into target regions, have been proposed as putative therapeutic agents in human neurodegenerative disorders. In parallel to the study of the beneficial effects in experimental models of particular diseases, a crucial aspect of the study of trophic factors is the(More)
The detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid by immunoblotting is useful for the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). We found 14-3-3 protein in 10 of 80 (12.5%) patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PNDs), whose presenting symptoms may mimic those of CJD. In 47 of 48 CJD patients, the 14-3-3 protein was detected as a(More)
The severity of dopamine depletion and the consequent pathophysiologic changes that occur in basal ganglia circuits determine the severity of parkinsonian signs. Restoring the dopamine deficit or the downstream physiologic abnormalities improves Parkinson's Disease (PD) main motor features and as a result, attenuates the short-duration response (SDR).(More)