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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and full-length and truncated tyrosin kinase B receptor (TrkB) protein expression were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of individuals affected by long-lasting severe Alzheimer disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Since preliminary processing studies in(More)
The basal ganglia (BG) are a highly organized network, where different parts are activated for specific functions and circumstances. The BG are involved in movement control, as well as associative learning, planning, working memory, and emotion. We concentrate on the "motor circuit" because it is the best understood anatomically and physiologically, and(More)
The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is reviewed in light of recent advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the basal ganglia (BG). Current emphasis is placed on the parallel interactions between corticostriatal and corticosubthalamic afferents on the one hand, and internal feedback circuits modulating BG output through the(More)
The synthesis of mevalonate, which is considered the first rate-limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis, is catalyzed by the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR; EC 1.1.1.34). In Arabidopsis, HMGR is encoded by two differentially expressed genes (HMG1 and HMG2). The transcriptional activity of the HMG2 gene was studied after fusing(More)
The contribution of D1 and D2 dopamine (DA) receptor mechanisms to the behavioral supersensitivity and receptor upregulation induced by chronic DA antagonist administration were compared. Rats received either the selective D1 DA receptor antagonist SCH23390, the selective D2 DA receptor antagonist raclopride, their combination, or haloperidol, a(More)
Trophic factors, administered systemically or delivered via genetically-modified cells grafted into target regions, have been proposed as putative therapeutic agents in human neurodegenerative disorders. In parallel to the study of the beneficial effects in experimental models of particular diseases, a crucial aspect of the study of trophic factors is the(More)
In the past, functional changes in the circuitry of the basal ganglia that occur in Parkinson's disease were primarily analyzed with electrophysiological and 2-deoxyglucose measurements. The increased activity of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) observed has been attributed to a reduction in inhibition mediated by the external segment of the globus pallidus(More)
The systemic administration of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine) , has previously been found to reverse the motor response alterations that develop during long-term levodopa treatment of parkinsonian rats. To determine whether co-administration of MK801 with levodopa(More)
The neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra (SNc). The degenerative process starts unilaterally and spreads to the dopaminergic system of both hemispheres. However, the complete characterization of the nigra lesion and the subsequent changes in basal ganglia nuclei(More)